2What is a biome?Biome- large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of organisms.
3Biomes and VegetationBiomes are described by their vegetation because plant species will determine the animal species in an area.Plants in a biome have adaptations that allow them to survive the climate conditions for that biome.Ex- size, shape, color, root depth, reproductive strategy
4Biomes and Climate Climate- weather conditions Climate determines plantsTwo most important factors:Temperature- most organisms are adapted to live in a range of temperatures. If the temperature get out of the desired range the organism my die.Precipitation-The larger the organism the more water is needed for growth and survival.
8Forest Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Location- around the world near the equator
9Forest Biomes Tropical Rainforest Precipitation- 200-450 cm per year Temperature- very warmGrowing season- 12 monthsSoil- Poor qualityLeeching washes away nutrientsPlants adapted with buttresses to support the tall trees with shallow root systems.
10Forest Biomes Tropical Rainforest Species diversity- greatest amount of diversityOne hectare of land may contain 100 species of trees (compared to only a few species in a temperate forest.)Insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birdsThreats- Logging and clearing for farm land7% of earth’s surface (compared to 20% in the past)Everyday about 100 acres lost
11Forest Biomes Temperate Rainforest Location- North America, Australia and New Zealand.Precipitation cm per yearTemperature- Moderate TemperaturesGrowing season months since it rarely gets below freezing.Soil- Nutrient Rich
12Forest BiomesTemperate Deciduous ForestLocation- between 30 and 50 N
13Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest Precipitation cm per yearTemperature- Warm to hot summers and cool to cold wintersGrowing season- 4-6 monthsSoil- Deep rich soil due to dropping of leaves in the autumn.
14Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest Species diversity- Good Species DiversityInsects, mammals, birdsAmphibians and reptiles in warmer forestThreats- Logging and clearing for farm land and urbanizationForest land has increased as farm land has been abandoned in the U.S. and other countries.Today more forest exist in Alabama than in 1900.
15Forest Biomes Taiga (Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest) Location- around 50 N
16Forest Biomes Taiga Precipitation- around 50 cm per year Temperature- Warm summers and cold harsh wintersGrowing season- 50 days to 6 monthsSoil- poor quality- very acidic
17Forest Biomes Taiga Species diversity- Low Species Diversity Insects, mammals, birdsPlants dominated by conifersThreats- Acid rain, disease, and loggingLow species diversity allows disease to decimate a forest.
19Grasslands Savannas Precipitation- 50 – 125 cm per year Wet and dry seasonTemperature CGrowing season- during the wet seasonSoil- Rich in moist areas and poor in very dry regions
20GrasslandsSavannaSpecies Diversity- relatively diverse (less than rain and deciduous forest)Plant adaptations- runners, vertical leaves, thorns, drop leaves during the dry seasonInsects, mammals, birdsLarge migratory grazing herbivores are dominant on the landscape.
21Grasslands Temperate Grassland Location- around 30 N & S latitude American Prairie, Russian Steppes, Veldt of South Africa, and Pampas of South America
22Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Precipitation- 25-75 cm per year Temperature- Hot summers and cold wintersGrowing season- During the warm summer months (latitude will determine the length of summer)Soil- Rich Soil
23Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Species Diversity- moderately diverse Plants-dense sod forming grasses or bunch grassesGrasses survive frequent fireAnimals-Insects, mammals, birds, reptilesLarge migratory grazing animalsBurrowing mammals
30Desert Desert Precipitation- less than 25 cm per year Temperature- varies (hot days/cold nights)Growing season- shortly after rainSoil- poor (very little humus)
31Desert Species Diversity- Very Low Plant adaptations Succulents- thick, fleshy stems and leaves that hold water.Shallow spreading root systemShort quick growth cycle when rain is availableAnimal adaptationsThick scaly skin holds waterEstivating- burrowing during the hottest part of the dayNocturnalReptiles, Mammals, Birds, insectsThreats- species loss, the amount of desert is increasing word wide.
32TundraLocationNorthern polar regions (above 60 N latitude)
33Tundra Precipitation- Less that 25 cm per year (snow) Temperature- long cold harsh winters and short mild summersGrowing season- summer (4 months or less)Soil- Poor (permafrost)
34Tundra Species Diversity- very low Plant adaptations Low growingShallow roots systemsQuick reproductive cycleAnimal adaptationsMigrate or burrow during winterMammals, birds (summer), insects (summer)ThreatsHabitat loss and pollution