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Biomes Chapter 6. What is a biome? Biome- large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of organisms. Biome- large region.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomes Chapter 6. What is a biome? Biome- large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of organisms. Biome- large region."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomes Chapter 6

2 What is a biome? Biome- large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of organisms. Biome- large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of organisms.

3 Biomes and Vegetation Biomes are described by their vegetation because plant species will determine the animal species in an area. Biomes are described by their vegetation because plant species will determine the animal species in an area. –Plants in a biome have adaptations that allow them to survive the climate conditions for that biome. Ex- size, shape, color, root depth, reproductive strategy Ex- size, shape, color, root depth, reproductive strategy

4 Biomes and Climate Climate- weather conditions Climate- weather conditions –Climate determines plants –Two most important factors: Temperature- most organisms are adapted to live in a range of temperatures. If the temperature get out of the desired range the organism my die. Temperature- most organisms are adapted to live in a range of temperatures. If the temperature get out of the desired range the organism my die. Precipitation-The larger the organism the more water is needed for growth and survival. Precipitation-The larger the organism the more water is needed for growth and survival.

5 Biomes and Climate

6 Latitude- distance north or south from the equator. Latitude- distance north or south from the equator. Altitude- the height of an object above seas level. Altitude- the height of an object above seas level.

7 Forest Biomes

8 Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Rain Forest –Location- around the world near the equator

9 Forest Biomes Tropical Rainforest Tropical Rainforest –Precipitation cm per year –Temperature- very warm –Growing season- 12 months –Soil- Poor quality Leeching washes away nutrients Leeching washes away nutrients Plants adapted with buttresses to support the tall trees with shallow root systems. Plants adapted with buttresses to support the tall trees with shallow root systems.

10 Forest Biomes Tropical Rainforest Tropical Rainforest –Species diversity- greatest amount of diversity One hectare of land may contain 100 species of trees (compared to only a few species in a temperate forest.) One hectare of land may contain 100 species of trees (compared to only a few species in a temperate forest.) Insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds Insects, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds –Threats- Logging and clearing for farm land 7% of earths surface (compared to 20% in the past) 7% of earths surface (compared to 20% in the past) Everyday about 100 acres lost Everyday about 100 acres lost

11 Forest Biomes Temperate Rainforest Temperate Rainforest –Location- North America, Australia and New Zealand. –Precipitation cm per year –Temperature- Moderate Temperatures –Growing season months since it rarely gets below freezing. –Soil- Nutrient Rich

12 Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest –Location- between 30 and 50 N

13 Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest –Precipitation cm per year –Temperature- Warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters –Growing season- 4-6 months –Soil- Deep rich soil due to dropping of leaves in the autumn.

14 Forest Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest –Species diversity- Good Species Diversity Insects, mammals, birds Insects, mammals, birds Amphibians and reptiles in warmer forest Amphibians and reptiles in warmer forest –Threats- Logging and clearing for farm land and urbanization Forest land has increased as farm land has been abandoned in the U.S. and other countries. Forest land has increased as farm land has been abandoned in the U.S. and other countries. Today more forest exist in Alabama than in Today more forest exist in Alabama than in 1900.

15 Forest Biomes Taiga (Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest) Taiga (Northern Coniferous Forest or Boreal Forest) –Location- around 50 N

16 Forest Biomes Taiga Taiga –Precipitation- around 50 cm per year –Temperature- Warm summers and cold harsh winters –Growing season- 50 days to 6 months –Soil- poor quality- very acidic

17 Forest Biomes Taiga Taiga –Species diversity- Low Species Diversity Insects, mammals, birds Insects, mammals, birds Plants dominated by conifers Plants dominated by conifers –Threats- Acid rain, disease, and logging Low species diversity allows disease to decimate a forest. Low species diversity allows disease to decimate a forest.

18 Grasslands Savanna Savanna –Location- near equator

19 Grasslands Savannas Savannas –Precipitation- 50 – 125 cm per year Wet and dry season Wet and dry season –Temperature C –Growing season- during the wet season –Soil- Rich in moist areas and poor in very dry regions

20 Grasslands Savanna Savanna –Species Diversity- relatively diverse (less than rain and deciduous forest) Plant adaptations- runners, vertical leaves, thorns, drop leaves during the dry season Plant adaptations- runners, vertical leaves, thorns, drop leaves during the dry season Insects, mammals, birds Insects, mammals, birds Large migratory grazing herbivores are dominant on the landscape. Large migratory grazing herbivores are dominant on the landscape.

21 Grasslands Temperate Grassland Temperate Grassland –Location- around 30 N & S latitude American Prairie, Russian Steppes, Veldt of South Africa, and Pampas of South America American Prairie, Russian Steppes, Veldt of South Africa, and Pampas of South America

22 Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Temperate Grasslands –Precipitation cm per year –Temperature- Hot summers and cold winters –Growing season- During the warm summer months (latitude will determine the length of summer) –Soil- Rich Soil

23 Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Temperate Grasslands –Species Diversity- moderately diverse Plants- Plants- –dense sod forming grasses or bunch grasses –Grasses survive frequent fire Animals- Animals- –Insects, mammals, birds, reptiles –Large migratory grazing animals –Burrowing mammals

24 Grasslands Temperate Grassland Temperate Grassland

25 Grasslands Chaparral- Temperate woodland with scattered tree communities. Chaparral- Temperate woodland with scattered tree communities. –Location- Temperate zone near coastal areas

26 Grasslands Chaparral Chaparral –Precipitation- around cm per year Dry summers and wet winters Dry summers and wet winters –Temperature- warm summers and mild winters –Growing season- year around –Soil- poor

27 Grasslands Chaparral Chaparral –Species Diversity Plants- Plants- –low-lying, evergreen shrubs and trees –Leathery leaves retain water –Adapted to fire Animals Animals –camouflage –Threats- Human development Human development

28 Desert High Desert High Desert –Location N & S latitude Hot Desert Hot Desert –Location N & S latitude

29 Desert

30 Desert Desert Desert –Precipitation- less than 25 cm per year –Temperature- varies (hot days/cold nights) –Growing season- shortly after rain –Soil- poor (very little humus)

31 Desert Species Diversity- Very Low Species Diversity- Very Low –Plant adaptations Succulents- thick, fleshy stems and leaves that hold water. Succulents- thick, fleshy stems and leaves that hold water. Shallow spreading root system Shallow spreading root system Short quick growth cycle when rain is available Short quick growth cycle when rain is available –Animal adaptations Thick scaly skin holds water Thick scaly skin holds water Estivating- burrowing during the hottest part of the day Estivating- burrowing during the hottest part of the day Nocturnal Nocturnal Reptiles, Mammals, Birds, insects Reptiles, Mammals, Birds, insects –Threats- species loss, the amount of desert is increasing word wide.

32 Tundra Location Location –Northern polar regions (above 60 N latitude)

33 Tundra Precipitation- Less that 25 cm per year (snow) Precipitation- Less that 25 cm per year (snow) Temperature- long cold harsh winters and short mild summers Temperature- long cold harsh winters and short mild summers Growing season- summer (4 months or less) Growing season- summer (4 months or less) Soil- Poor (permafrost) Soil- Poor (permafrost)

34 Tundra Species Diversity- very low Species Diversity- very low –Plant adaptations Low growing Low growing Shallow roots systems Shallow roots systems Quick reproductive cycle Quick reproductive cycle –Animal adaptations Migrate or burrow during winter Migrate or burrow during winter Mammals, birds (summer), insects (summer) Mammals, birds (summer), insects (summer) –Threats Habitat loss and pollution Habitat loss and pollution

35 Tundra

36 Tundra


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