Presentation on theme: "Scientists group ecosystems into larger areas called biomes. Biome: a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants."— Presentation transcript:
Scientists group ecosystems into larger areas called biomes. Biome: a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants and animal communities.
The major biomes are divided into Terrestrial (ground) and Aquatic (water) biomes. The aquatic biome can be divided into both Marine (saltwater) and Freshwater biomes. The Terrestrial Biomes are: 1)Tropical Forest 2)Temperate (Deciduous) Forest 3)Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest) 4)Savannah 5)Grasslands (also called Prairie, Steppe, or Pampas) 6)Desert 7)Tundra
Some biologists define more than seven terrestrial biomes, adding Chaparral, Mountain, Island, or Tropical Dry Forest. Biomes are often known in English by local names. For example, a temperate grassland or shrubland biome is known commonly as steppe in central Asia, prairie in North America, and pampas in South America. Tropical grasslands are known as savanna in Australia, whereas in Southern Africa it is known as veldt (from Afrikaans).temperate grassland or shrublandsteppeAsia prairieNorth AmericapampasSouth AmericasavannaveldtAfrikaans
Biomes are described by their vegetation because plants are the most noticeable characteristic of a region. The plants also determine the other organisms that can live in an area. Plants (& animals) in a particular biome have adaptations that enable them to live there.
Located in a belt around the Earth near the equator. Regulate world climate. Play a vital role in the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cycles.
Always humid and warm Get 200 to 450 cm of rain a year. Strong sunlight year round. Relatively constant temperature year round.
Once covered 20% of the Earths surface. Now cover only 7% of the Earths surface. Every minute of every day, 100 acres of tropical rain forest are destroyed.
Trees drop their broad, flat leaves each fall Range of temperatures can be extreme Growing season only lasts four to six months Winter temperatures often fall below freezing. This means little water available for plants.
Vegetation also changes with the seasons. Organic matter decomposes slowly in the winter. The soil contains more organic matter and nutrients than the soil in a tropical rain forest.
Northern coniferous forest (trees with cones & needles like pine trees) Just below the Arctic Circle Winters are long (6 to 10 months) Average temperatures just below freezing. Plant growth is most abundant during the summer because of constant daylight and more precipitation.
Conifer – tree with needle-like leaves and seeds that develop in cones The shape of the leaves and waxy coating prevent them from losing too much water. Cone-like shape prevents snow from building up on branches and causing breakage.
Needles contain substances to make the soil acidic when the needles fall to the ground. Most plants cannot grow in acidic soil. Soil forms slowly because of the climate and acidity of the soil.
Parts of Africa, Western India, Northern Australia, South America Tropical Biome Dominated by grasses, shrubs, small trees Have a wet season and dry season
Large areas of the interior of continents Moderate rainfall but still too little for trees Prairies in North America, steppes in Asia, veldt in South Africa, pampas in South America
Most fertile soil in the world Farmland
Widely scattered vegetation Very little rain In extreme cases, it never rains and there is no vegetation Temperature changes rapidly during a 24 hour period. Often located near mountains that block rain clouds.
Northern arctic regions Too cold and dry for trees Permafrost – deeper layers of soil are permanently frozen throughout the year. Thin topsoil When the topsoil thaws, the land becomes wet and spongy and is covered in bogs.