2 Objectives Identify the eight major biomes. Compare tundra with taiga. Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21ObjectivesIdentify the eight major biomes.Compare tundra with taiga.Compare the different kinds of forests.Compare the different kinds of grasslands.Describe the adaptations of desert organisms.
3 BiomeLarge terrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems.Similar climate and inhabitants with similar adaptations.Commonly identified by their dominant plant life.
4 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21The Major BiomesThe major types of terrestrial ecosystems, known as biomes, are:TundraTropical forestTemperate forestTaigaTemperate grasslandSavannaChaparralDesert
5 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21Earth’s Major Biomes
6 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21TundraTundra is a cold and largely treeless biome characterized by permafrost under the surface of the ground.Small plants (mosses, grasses)Caribou, musk oxen, snowy owls, arctic, foxes, lemmings, and snowshoe hares. (Summer: birds, insects).
8 Forests Tropical Forests Chapter 21 Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21ForestsTropical ForestsTropical forests receive abundant rainfall and have stable temperatures.They have a greater species richness than any other biome.Tropical Rain ForestsTropical Dry Forests
9 Competition for LightCanopy: continuous layer of tree tops that shades the for forest floor.Epiphytes: small plants that live on tree branches (mosses, orchids, bromeliads)Use other organisms for support but make their own food.
10 Species RichnessHighest of all biomes- contain about ½ of the worlds species!One hectar of tropical rain forest – 300 species of trees.Monkeys, snakes, lizards, birds, insects
12 Forests, continued Temperate Forests Chapter 21 Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21Forests, continuedTemperate ForestsDistinct seasons and moderate climate.Temperate forests have coniferous trees, which bear seeds in cones, or deciduous trees, which shed their leaves each year.
13 Forests, continued Temperate Deciduous Forests Chapter 21 Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21Forests, continuedTemperate Deciduous ForestsThe trees in temperate deciduous forests shed all of their leaves in the fall.Deciduous trees have broad thin leaves with a large surface area that permits maximum light absorption.Birch, beech, maple, oak, hickory, sycamore, elm, willow, and cottonwood.Bears, wolves, white-tailed deer, foxes, raccoons, squirrels.Timber used for construction.
15 Forests, continued Taiga (boreal forest) Chapter 21 Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21Forests, continuedTaiga (boreal forest)Taiga is cold but is warmer than tundra and receives more precipitation.Taiga is dominated by coniferous forests.Needle shape of leaves reduces water loss.Moose, bear, wolves, lynxes, hares.
17 Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Chapter 21 Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21GrasslandsTemperate GrasslandsTemperate grasslands occur in areas with cold winters and hot summers.They are dominated by grasses and herds of grazing animals. (Bison)
18 Grasslands, continued Savanna Chapter 21 Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21Grasslands, continuedSavannaSavannas are tropical grasslands with alternating wet and dry seasons.Scattered deciduous trees and shrubs.They are dominated by herds of grazing animals. (herbivores: zebras, wildebeests, giraffes, gazelles, carnivores: lions, leopards, cheetahs)
20 Grasslands, continued Chaparral Chapter 21 Section 1 Terrestrial BiomesChapter 21Grasslands, continuedChaparralChaparral is found in coastal regions with warm, dry summers and mild winters.It is dominated by dense, spiny shrubs.
22 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21DesertsDeserts receive less than 25 cm (9.9 in.) of precipitation per year.Desert inhabitants have adaptations for conserving water.Plantsleaves with waxy coatingFew stomata (openings in leaves) and open at nightExpandable body and needles for protection.Animalsthat hide in the shade or burrowone active only at night.