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Ecosystems Chapter 21 Table of Contents Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems Chapter 21 Table of Contents Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ecosystems Chapter 21 Table of Contents Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

3 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 Objectives  Identify the eight major biomes.  Compare tundra with taiga.  Compare the different kinds of forests.  Compare the different kinds of grasslands.  Describe the adaptations of desert organisms.

4 Biome  Large terrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems.  Similar climate and inhabitants with similar adaptations.  Commonly identified by their dominant plant life.

5 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 The Major Biomes  The major types of terrestrial ecosystems, known as biomes, are:  Tundra  Tropical forest  Temperate forest  Taiga  Temperate grassland  Savanna  Chaparral  Desert

6 Chapter 21 Earth’s Major Biomes Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

7 Chapter 21 Tundra  Tundra is a cold and largely treeless biome characterized by permafrost under the surface of the ground.  Small plants (mosses, grasses)  Caribou, musk oxen, snowy owls, arctic, foxes, lemmings, and snowshoe hares. (Summer: birds, insects).

8 Chapter 21 Tundra Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

9 Chapter 21 Forests  Tropical Forests  Tropical forests receive abundant rainfall and have stable temperatures.  They have a greater species richness than any other biome. Tropical Rain Forests Tropical Dry Forests

10 Competition for Light  Canopy: continuous layer of tree tops that shades the for forest floor.  Epiphytes: small plants that live on tree branches (mosses, orchids, bromeliads)  Use other organisms for support but make their own food.

11 Species Richness  Highest of all biomes- contain about ½ of the worlds species!  One hectar of tropical rain forest – 300 species of trees.  Monkeys, snakes, lizards, birds, insects

12 Chapter 21 Tropical Rain Forest Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

13 Chapter 21 Forests, continued  Temperate Forests  Distinct seasons and moderate climate.  Temperate forests have coniferous trees, which bear seeds in cones, or deciduous trees, which shed their leaves each year.

14 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 Forests, continued  Temperate Deciduous Forests  The trees in temperate deciduous forests shed all of their leaves in the fall. Deciduous trees have broad thin leaves with a large surface area that permits maximum light absorption. Birch, beech, maple, oak, hickory, sycamore, elm, willow, and cottonwood. Bears, wolves, white-tailed deer, foxes, raccoons, squirrels. Timber used for construction.

15 Chapter 21 Temperate Deciduous Forest Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

16 Chapter 21 Forests, continued  Taiga (boreal forest)  Taiga is cold but is warmer than tundra and receives more precipitation.  Taiga is dominated by coniferous forests. Needle shape of leaves reduces water loss. Moose, bear, wolves, lynxes, hares.

17 Chapter 21 Taiga Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

18 Chapter 21 Grasslands  Temperate Grasslands  Temperate grasslands occur in areas with cold winters and hot summers.  They are dominated by grasses and herds of grazing animals. (Bison)

19 Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 Grasslands, continued  Savanna  Savannas are tropical grasslands with alternating wet and dry seasons.  Scattered deciduous trees and shrubs.  They are dominated by herds of grazing animals. (herbivores: zebras, wildebeests, giraffes, gazelles, carnivores: lions, leopards, cheetahs)

20 Chapter 21 Savanna Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

21 Chapter 21 Grasslands, continued  Chaparral  Chaparral is found in coastal regions with warm, dry summers and mild winters.  It is dominated by dense, spiny shrubs.

22 Chapter 21 Grassland Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes

23 Chapter 21 Deserts  Deserts receive less than 25 cm (9.9 in.) of precipitation per year.  Desert inhabitants have adaptations for conserving water.  Plants leaves with waxy coating Few stomata (openings in leaves) and open at night Expandable body and needles for protection.  Animals that hide in the shade or burrow one active only at night.

24 Chapter 21 Desert Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes


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