Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 Objectives Identify the eight major biomes. Compare tundra with taiga. Compare the different kinds of forests. Compare the different kinds of grasslands. Describe the adaptations of desert organisms.
Biome Large terrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems. Similar climate and inhabitants with similar adaptations. Commonly identified by their dominant plant life.
Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 The Major Biomes The major types of terrestrial ecosystems, known as biomes, are: Tundra Tropical forest Temperate forest Taiga Temperate grassland Savanna Chaparral Desert
Chapter 21 Earth’s Major Biomes Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes
Chapter 21 Tundra Tundra is a cold and largely treeless biome characterized by permafrost under the surface of the ground. Small plants (mosses, grasses) Caribou, musk oxen, snowy owls, arctic, foxes, lemmings, and snowshoe hares. (Summer: birds, insects).
Chapter 21 Tundra Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes
Chapter 21 Forests Tropical Forests Tropical forests receive abundant rainfall and have stable temperatures. They have a greater species richness than any other biome. Tropical Rain Forests Tropical Dry Forests
Competition for Light Canopy: continuous layer of tree tops that shades the for forest floor. Epiphytes: small plants that live on tree branches (mosses, orchids, bromeliads) Use other organisms for support but make their own food.
Species Richness Highest of all biomes- contain about ½ of the worlds species! One hectar of tropical rain forest – 300 species of trees. Monkeys, snakes, lizards, birds, insects
Chapter 21 Forests, continued Temperate Forests Distinct seasons and moderate climate. Temperate forests have coniferous trees, which bear seeds in cones, or deciduous trees, which shed their leaves each year.
Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 Forests, continued Temperate Deciduous Forests The trees in temperate deciduous forests shed all of their leaves in the fall. Deciduous trees have broad thin leaves with a large surface area that permits maximum light absorption. Birch, beech, maple, oak, hickory, sycamore, elm, willow, and cottonwood. Bears, wolves, white-tailed deer, foxes, raccoons, squirrels. Timber used for construction.
Chapter 21 Forests, continued Taiga (boreal forest) Taiga is cold but is warmer than tundra and receives more precipitation. Taiga is dominated by coniferous forests. Needle shape of leaves reduces water loss. Moose, bear, wolves, lynxes, hares.
Chapter 21 Taiga Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes
Chapter 21 Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Temperate grasslands occur in areas with cold winters and hot summers. They are dominated by grasses and herds of grazing animals. (Bison)
Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Chapter 21 Grasslands, continued Savanna Savannas are tropical grasslands with alternating wet and dry seasons. Scattered deciduous trees and shrubs. They are dominated by herds of grazing animals. (herbivores: zebras, wildebeests, giraffes, gazelles, carnivores: lions, leopards, cheetahs)
Chapter 21 Deserts Deserts receive less than 25 cm (9.9 in.) of precipitation per year. Desert inhabitants have adaptations for conserving water. Plants leaves with waxy coating Few stomata (openings in leaves) and open at night Expandable body and needles for protection. Animals that hide in the shade or burrow one active only at night.