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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Gender Roles and Sexuality.

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Presentation on theme: "Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Gender Roles and Sexuality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Gender Roles and Sexuality

2 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12

3 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Male and Female Genetic: XX=female; XY=male Gender roles: behaviors –Communality vs. Agency Gender role norms: expectations Gender-role stereotypes: –Overgeneralizations, inaccuracies Gender typing: acquiring the role

4 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Gender Differences Verbal: Females slightly higher Spatial: Males higher Math: Males highest and lowest Aggression and riskiness: males Compliant, tactful, cooperative: females Nurturant, empathic, anxious: females Vulnerability: males

5 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Figure 12.1

6 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Social-role Hypothesis (Eagly) Roles create stereotypes Context and culture important Changes occurring today Psychological differences –Few and small –Important Differential roles continue

7 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Infancy Differential treatment Differential expectations By 18 mo: categorical self By 2 1/2 yr: gender identity 18-24 mo: gender toy preference

8 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Childhood 3 yrs: gender stereotypes acquired Gender rigidity until age 6 Gender constancy: by ages 4-6 Gender typed behavior by age 2 1/2 –Greater by age 6 –Stronger rules for boys

9 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12

10 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12

11 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Adolescence Gender intensification –Pubertal hormonal changes –Preparation for reproductive activities Gender and peer conformity Later adolescence more flexible thinking

12 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Biosocial Theory Money and Ehrhardt Biological development –Presence of Y chromosome –Testosterone masculinizes brain and nervous system Social influences and labeling at birth Gender behavior through social interaction

13 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Figure 12.3

14 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Psychoanalytic Theory Oedipus (boy) and Electra (girl) Complex Research supports –Identification with same-sex parent –Preschool years important –Importance of father for both –Stronger male reaction

15 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Social Learning Theory Differential reinforcement Observational learning Fathers differentiate most Internalization of parent views Peers, media, books, etc

16 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Cognitive Theories Kohlberg: self socialization Stage-like changes –Gender identity: ages 2-3 Label themselves correctly –Gender stability: ages 3-4 Stable over time –Gender consistency: ages 5-7 Stable across situations

17 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Gender Schema Theory Information processing Gender schemata by ages 2-3 –In-group/out-group schema –Own-sex schema Child looks for confirming information in the environment

18 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12

19 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Adulthood Gender roles over the life-span –At marriage: greater differentiation –Birth of child: it increases more Parental imperative –Middle age and older: Androgyny Shift - does not mean switch

20 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Figure 12.5

21 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Sexuality Over the Life Span Infant sexuality: CNS arousal Childhood –Learn about reproduction –Curiosity and exploration –Sexual abuse: like PTSD Adolescence: sexual identity, orientation Double standard: decline?

22 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12

23 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Adult Sexuality Most are married Gradual declines –Individual differences –Married have more sex Males sexual peak: age 18 Female sexual peak: age 38

24 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 12 Older Adults Stereotype: Asexuality Reality: decline –Diseases and disabilities –Social attitudes –Lack of a partner Physiologically able in old age


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