3Male and FemaleGenetic: XX=female; XY=maleGender roles: behaviorsCommunality vs. AgencyGender role norms: expectationsGender-role stereotypes:Overgeneralizations, inaccuraciesGender typing: acquiring the role
5Figure 12. 1 A spatial ability task Figure A spatial ability task. Are the two figures in each pair alike or different? The task assesses the ability to mentally rotate visual information and is a task on which average differences between males and females are quite large.Figure 12.1
6Social-role Hypothesis (Eagly) Roles create stereotypesContext and culture importantChanges occurring todayPsychological differencesFew and smallImportantDifferential roles continue
11AdolescenceGender intensificationPubertal hormonal changesPreparation for reproductive activitiesGender and peer conformityLater adolescence more flexible thinking
12Biosocial TheoryMoney and EhrhardtBiological developmentPresence of Y chromosomeTestosterone masculinizes brain and nervous systemSocial influences and labeling at birthGender behavior through social interaction
13Figure 12.3 Critical events in Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender typing
14Psychoanalytic Theory Oedipus (boy) and Electra (girl) ComplexResearch supportsIdentification with same-sex parentPreschool years importantImportance of father for bothStronger male reaction
15Social Learning Theory Differential reinforcementObservational learningFathers differentiate mostInternalization of parent viewsPeers, media, books, etc
16Cognitive TheoriesKohlberg: self socializationStage-like changesGender identity: ages 2-3Label themselves correctlyGender stability: ages 3-4Stable over timeGender consistency: ages 5-7Stable across situations
17Gender Schema TheoryInformation processingGender schemata by ages 2-3In-group/out-group schemaOwn-sex schemaChild looks for confirming information in the environment
19AdulthoodGender roles over the life-spanAt marriage: greater differentiationBirth of child: it increases moreParental imperativeMiddle age and older: AndrogynyShift - does not mean switch
20Figure Categories of gender-role orientation based on viewing masculinity and femininity as separate dimensions of personality.Figure 12.5
21Sexuality Over the Life Span Infant sexuality: CNS arousalChildhoodLearn about reproductionCuriosity and explorationSexual abuse: like PTSDAdolescence: sexual identity, orientationDouble standard: decline?
22Table If one twin is gay (or lesbian), in what percentage of twin pairs does the other twin also have a homosexual or bisexual orientation? Higher rates of concordance (similarity) for identical twin pairs than for fraternal twin pairs provide evidence of genetic influence on homosexuality. Less-than-perfect concordance points to the operation of environmental influences as well.
23Adult SexualityMost are marriedGradual declinesIndividual differencesMarried have more sexMales sexual peak: age 18Female sexual peak: age 38
24Older AdultsStereotype: AsexualityReality: declineDiseases and disabilitiesSocial attitudesLack of a partnerPhysiologically able in old age