Objectives PP 15-1a Identify conjunctions. Identify types of clauses and sentences. Use coordinating and correlative conjunctions correctly. Use subordinating conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs correctly. Use correct punctuation in sentences containing coordinating, correlative, or subordinating conjunctions or conjunctive adverbs.
Objectives PP 15-1b Identify correct parallel structure in sentences. Distinguish between conjunctions and prepositions. Use commonly confused conjunction expressions correctly. continued
Independent Clauses PP 15-2 An independent clause (or main clause) can stand alone as a complete sentence. A clause has a complete subject and predicate. Proper nutrition helps stabilize your moods. Stress is emotional tension caused by everyday events in our lives.
Dependent Clause PP 15-3a A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) also contains a subject and a predicate; however, a dependent clause is not a complete sentence and cannot stand alone. A dependent clause requires an independent clause to make sense. A dependent clause may appear before or after an independent clause.
Dependent Clause PP 15-3b Examples Before Vivian leaves work for the day, she organizes her desk. Judi answers her e-mail after she returns her phone calls. continued
Types of Sentences PP 15-4 Simple Compound Complex Compound-Complex
Simple Sentence PP 15-5 A simple sentence consists of one complete subject and one complete predicate. The subject, the predicate, or both may be compound. Audrey had a demanding day at work. Audrey and Bruce work in the same office. Audrey and Bruce live and work in San Diego.
Compound Sentence PP 15-6 A compound sentence consists of two simple independent clauses connected by a conjunction such as or, and, nor, or but. Audrey had a demanding day at work, but she is looking forward to having dinner with friends. Anger is meant to intimidate other people, and this often appears to be true.
Complex Sentence PP 15-7 A complex sentence contains an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. If you have been a victim in the downsizing of a company, you have experienced stress. Although the company reorganized, Julie retained her position in accounting.
Compound-Complex Sentence PP 15-8 A compound-complex sentence contains more than one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Relaxation techniques help reverse coronary disease; however, since this beneficial health information is not widely publicized, not all doctors know about this philosophy of health care.
Coordinating Conjunctions PP 15-9a Join words, phrases, or clauses that are equal in grammatical construction and importance. andorbutnor Insert a comma before a coordinating conjunction that separates two independent clauses.
Coordinating Conjunctions PP 15-9b Use but to express a contrasting idea. Home-based business owners usually enjoy their work, but they can become the victims of burnout. Use and to show an addition. Your thoughts and reactions to events can influence your health. Use or to indicate a choice. Lee copes with stress by relaxing or by making jokes about difficult situations. continued
Coordinating Conjunctions PP 15-9c Use nor to make a second choice negative. Liz and Tony did not agree on the topics for the stress management workshop, nor did they agree on the speakers. continued
Coordinating Conjunctions PP 15-9d Do not use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that links two words or phrases. Relaxation can inject happiness and fulfillment into your daily routine. Do not use a comma before a conjunction if the material following the conjunction is not a complete sentence. Losing your temper may get attention but usually makes the situation worse. continued
Coordinating Conjunctions PP 15-9e Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series. Include a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Ways to reduce stress include yoga, meditation, and exercise. Do not place a comma after the last item in a series. Joanne usually chooses soup, salad, or a pasta dish for lunch. continued
Correlative Conjunctions PP 15-10a Join words, phrases, and sentences of equal importance. Appear in pairs, and both parts receive the same attention. both/and either/or whether/or neither/nor not only/but also
Correlative Conjunctions PP 15-10b Examples Either Bernice or Lauren determines the work schedule. The speaker not only described the benefits of laughter but also related some personal stories to illustrate her point. continued
Subordinating Conjunctions PP 15-11a Introduce a dependent clause and link it to an independent clause. Use a subordinating conjunction to introduce a dependent clause. Place the comma after a dependent clause that begins a sentence. Whenever Lynn has a break, she takes a walk around the block.
Subordinating Conjunctions PP 15-11b Generally, do not use a comma before a dependent clause that appears at the end of a sentence. Our company hired Jack because he has strong conflict resolution skills. continued
Conjunctive Adverbs PP 15-12a Show the relationship between two independent clauses of equal weight. The words are adverbs, but they also function as connectors. Use a semicolon before a conjunctive adverb when it joins two independent clauses. Use a comma after a conjunctive adverb of two or more syllables.
Conjunctive Adverbs PP 15-12b continued
Conjunctive Adverbs PP 15-12c Examples Exercise can reduce lower-back pain; nevertheless, you should see a doctor before beginning an exercise program. Chris and I planned to eat lunch together; instead, I ate a sandwich at my desk. I felt isolated and stressed working at home; therefore, I requested a transfer to a local branch office. continued
Parallelism PP 15-13a Parallelism is the linking together of similar grammatical parts in a sentence. To have parallel sentence structure, similar constructions should be connected such as nouns to other nouns, verbs to other verbs, or clauses to other clauses. Coordinating conjunctions or correlative conjunctions join these parallel parts of a sentence.
Parallelism PP 15-13b Examples Relaxation can include reading for pleasure, playing with your child, or participating in sports activities. One way to fight stress is to discuss your problems with either a friend or a relative. You can calm both your mind and your body by thinking positive thoughts. continued
Conjunctions and Prepositions PP 15-14a Determine the appropriate function of a word in a sentence. Some words may be both prepositions and conjunctions; for example, before, after, until, for, than, and since. Use a conjunction to connect clauses. She will not load the software until she finishes the report. Rick always arrives at work after he drops off his children at school.
Conjunctions and Prepositions PP 15-14b Use a preposition when an object is expressed or understood; conjunctions do not have objects. She will not load the software until Friday. Rick always arrives at work after 9 p.m. continued
Try To, Be Sure To, Go To PP 15-15 Do not use expressions such as try and, go and, and be sure and when the infinitive form is needed. Use try to, go to, and be sure to. I would like to try to determine my own work schedule this week. Be sure to call me when you want to take a break.
As, As if, As Though, Like PP 15-16 Use the conjunctions as, as if, or as though to introduce a subordinate clause. The clause will have a verb in it. Linda acts as if she is overworked. Use the preposition like to introduce a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase will not contain a verb. Katherine wants a consulting job like mine.
As... As, So... As PP 15-17 Use as... as in positive comparisons. Karen is as effective as Joe in handling irate customers. Use so... as in negative comparisons. Karen is not so effective as Joe in handling irate customers. Do not use equally as, which is a redundant phrase.
Where, That PP 15-18 Do not use the conjunction where instead of that to introduce a clause that includes a reference to a location. I read in a magazine that thinking about past mistakes causes stress. (Do not use I read in a magazine where....)