Presentation on theme: "Prepositions and Conjunctions. Prepositions What is a preposition? A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence."— Presentation transcript:
Prepositions and Conjunctions
Prepositions What is a preposition? A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount.
Prepositions A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. Prepositions have a variety of meanings: Direction- He's going TO the shops Location- It's IN the box Time- He left AFTER the lesson had finished Possession- The Government OF Italy
Prepositions Some prepositional phrases can function like single word prepositions; next to, in front of, etc., called complex prepositions.prepositional phrasescomplex prepositions
Prepositional phrases A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.prepositional phrase adjectivesadverbs
Conjunctions A conjunction is used to indicate the relationship between the ideas expressed in a clause and the ideas expressed in the rest of a sentence.
Coordinate conjunctions Coordinate conjunctions are used to join two similar grammatical constructions; for instance, two words, two phrases or two clauses. and: in addition She tried and succeeded. but: however They tried but did not succeed. or: alternatively Did you go out or stay at home? nor: and neither I did not see it, nor did they. yet: however The sun is warm, yet the air is cool.
Correlative conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs, in order to show the relationship between the ideas expressed in different parts of a sentence. For instance, in the following example, the expression either... or is used to indicate that the ideas expressed in the two clauses represent two alternative choices of action.
Correlative conjunctions both... andHe is both intelligent and good-natured. either... orI will either go for a walk or read a book. neither... norHe is neither rich nor famous. hardly... whenHe had hardly begun to work, when he was interrupted. if... thenIf that is true, then what happened is not surprising.
Correlative conjunctions no sooner... thanNo sooner had I reached the corner, than the bus came. not only... but alsoShe is not only clever, but also hard-working. rather... thanI would rather go swimming than go to the library. scarcely... whenScarcely had we left home, when it started to rain. what with... andWhat with all her aunts, uncles and cousins, she has many relatives. whether... orHave you decided whether you will come or not?
Subordinate conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent (subordinate) clauses and join the dependent clause to the independent or main clause in a sentence. (A dependent clause has a subject and verb, but it depends on the independent clause for context and meaning.)
Connecting adverbs Connecting adverbs are often used to show the relationship between the ideas expressed in a clause and the ideas expressed in a preceding clause, sentence or paragraph.
Connecting adverbs and conjunctions Connecting adverbs are similar to conjunctions in that both may be used to introduce clauses. However, the use of connecting adverbs differs from that of conjunctions in the ways indicated below.
Connecting adverbs and conjunctions a. Stress and punctuation In spoken English, a connecting adverb is usually given more stress than a conjunction. Correspondingly, in formal written English a connecting adverb is usually separated from the rest of a clause by commas, whereas a conjunction is usually not separated from the rest of a clause by commas.
Connecting adverbs and conjunctions b. Connecting adverbs used to connect sentences Unlike conjunctions, connecting adverbs may be used in formal English to show the relationship between ideas expressed in separate sentences. For example: The wind was strong. Thus, I felt very cold.
Connecting adverbs and conjunctions c. Position in a clause A subordinate conjunction must usually be placed at the beginning of a clause. However, as was seen in the discussion on adverbs, a connecting adverb may be placed at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.
Homework assignment 1. Read Chapter 13 and Do the exercises after the chapters.