3Father of America George Washington Hoped to retire from public life after the ratification of the ConstitutionFriends urged him to run for presidentBelieved he would make an excellent leaderAgreed because he felt it was his dutyJanuary 1789 – delegates from the 11 states that had ratified the Constitution formed the 1st electoral college – made up the electors who vote for presidentWashington unanimously electedJohn Adams – 1st Vice-President
4The 1st PresidentWhat were George Washington’s major achievements while in the Presidency?Northwest frontier war w/ Native Americans was wonBritain surrendered its forts in the NorthwestSpain opened the Mississippi to American commerceGeorge Washington’s CabinetThomas Jefferson – Secretary of StateAlexander Hamilton – Treasury SecretaryGeneral Henry Knox – Secretary of WarEdmund Randolph – Attorney General
5Who are Bush’s Cabinet members? Homework – part 1 Print out or write out a list of President Bush’s current cabinet members
61791 – 10 Amendments to the Constitution goes into effect Bill of Rights1791 – 10 Amendments to the Constitution goes into effect1st 8 – offered safeguards for individual rights against actions of the federal government9th – states that people have rights other than the ones listed10th – states that powers not specifically reserved for the Federal Government would be reserved for the states
7A Snapshot of America in 1790 Nearly 4 Million AmericansMost lived in rural areas & worked on farmsSome lived in towns as craftspeople, laborers, or merchantsFarmers wanted fair tax laws & the right to settle western landsMerchants wanted simpler trade lawsManufacturers wanted laws to protect them from foreign competition
8CitiesOnly New York City & Philadelphia had populations greater than 25,000New York City served as the 1st U.S. capital
9Financing Our New Government By 1789 the government needed additional monies to continue to operateFaced a national debt – money the U.S. owed to lendersOwed $11.7 million to foreign creditorsOwed $40.4 million to U.S. CitizensSome Revolutionary debt was in the form of bonds – certificates that represent moneyThese bonds had been issued w/ the promise of interestBondholders feared that the government would not buy back the bondsSpeculators (individuals who bought the a low value in hopes the value would rise) – purchased the bonds from individuals for below value prices
102 very different plansJames Madison & Alexander Hamilton developed 2 very different plans to help finance the governmentJames Madison felt the government should raise money by taxing imports from other countriesTariff of 1789Made all importers pay 5% of value of their cargo when they landed in the U.S.Shippers required to pay a tax depending on how much their ships carriedAngered many Southern planters; began feeling the government didn’t have their best interest in mind
11Hamilton’s Financial Program Born in the West IndiesWent to American colonies for his educationPracticed lawSecretary of Treasurer under Washington’s administrationWanted to pay off the foreign debt immediatelyBuy back full pricesBank of the U.S. (founded 1791, closed 1811)Believed that bond owners would have a stake in the government’s success & be willing to loan $$ in the futureSupported the Tariff of 1789Believed in the government’s ability to borrow money
12Jefferson & MadisonOpposed this Hamilton’s plan because they felt that paying “full-value” on bonds would reward the speculatorsSoutherners were upset because Northerners owned the bonds while the tax money used to pay off the debt would come from the South.1790 Southerners were convinced to vote for Hamilton’s plan in return for the relocation of the U.S. capital to a southern location called the District of Columbia
13Hamilton's Plan PassesHamilton also asked Congress to create a national bank so that the government could manage its debts & interest paymentsObjectionsSoutherners felt on the Northerners could afford the bank’s stockMadison felt Congress couldn’t est. a bank because it was not with in the Constitution’s enumerated powers – powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution
14Bank of the United States Hamilton argued that the bank fell under the “elastic clause” (necessary & proper clause) – powers that are implied & not specifically mentioned in the ConstitutionCongress passes the bill forming the bank
16Whiskey Rebellion1791 – Hamilton proposes a tax on the manufacturing of American whiskeyPassed by CongressOutraged western farmersResult:Whiskey Rebellion begins – 1794Washington sent 13,000 troops to stop the rebellion
18Hamilton Vs. JeffersonThe split in Congress over Hamilton’s financial plan resulted in the formation of two political parties: Federalist & Democratic-Republicans.
19Attitude Toward Government The Federalists Alexander HamiltonDemocratic-RepublicansThomas JeffersonSocial Make- UpMerchants, Bankers, manufacturers, New England and Mid-Atlantic CoastArtists, shopkeepers, settlers, and southern plantation owners, small farm owners in the south and from western regions of the nation; believe in the idea of agrarianism - idea if owning land which enabled them to become independent.Attitude Toward GovernmentWanted to imitate British aristocracy (rule by the rich) but without a king.Saw the common people as unable govern themselves. Willing to censor the press for political power.Wanted more democracy than in the British Parliament.Common people were able to govern themselves. They wanted greater involvement by the people through lower voting qualification.Reduce government interference by decreasing numbers of federal officeholders.Favored freedom of speech & press.
20Views on the Constitution Foreign Policy Positions Held "loose constructionist" view that the Federal government had implied powers not listed in the Constitution.Held ''strict'' view of the constitution: limit the powers of the central government and support states rights.Foreign Policy PositionsFavored Britain in culture and trade as the basis of wealth.Distrusted Britain & wanted closer relations with France, which had just been through a democratic revolution.
22Washington’s Foreign Policy France Revolution – (French Civil War) began in 1789, shortly after Washington was inauguratedAmericans were divided over the French Rev.Federalist opposed it because of the violenceRepublicans supported it because of the fight for liberty1793 – French declared war on BritainForced Washington to issue a proclamation stating that the U.S. would remain neutral – friendly & impartial between the 2British navy intercepted neutral ships, including American ships carrying goods to France
23Jay’s TreatyWanting to avoid war, Washington sent John Jay to Britain to find a solutionGave Britain the right to seize American cargo heading to FranceBritain gave America “Most Favored Nation” status – would not discriminate against when they traded w/ BritainSet the w/drawal of British soldiers from posts in the American westEst. a commission to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. & CanadaEst. a commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures & Loyalist losses during the American Revolution
24Americans object . . . Missing from the treaty a refrain from arrest the arrest of American shipsimpressment of American seamenHamilton was stoned by an angry crowd in N.Y.Senate ratified w/ provision limiting trade in the British West IndiesWashington reluctantly approvesRaised concerns in SpainFelt that the British & Americans might join forces to take over Spanish holdings in N. Am.
25Although still admired, Washington came under sharp attack Fallout over TreatyAlthough still admired, Washington came under sharp attackJohn Jay resigned from the Supreme CourtLed to Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)“Let it be remembered that civil liberty consist, not in a right to every man to do just what he pleases, but it consist in an equal right to all citizens to have, enjoy, and do, in peace, security & without molestation, whatever the equal & constitutional laws of the country admit to be consistent w/ the public good.”~John Jay
26Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 Thomas Pinckney negotiated a treaty w/ Spain Recognized U.S. the Mississippi & the 31st Parallel – northern border of Florida (Spanish possession)Agreed to allow the U.S. free navigation of MS River to the Gulf of Mexico & granted the right of deposit in New Orleans for 3 yearsBoth nations agreed not to incite Na. Am. Attacks against each otherSupported by Western farmers
27Western ExpansionAmericans moved in large numbers to the area between Appalachian Mountains & the MS River because of abundant land, fertile soil, wide rivers, & a variety of fish game.Increase of white settlers led to tension w/ Na. Am.Little Turtle – chief of the Miami people of the Northwest Territory - formed a confederacy of several Na. Am. Groups against the white settlers.After 2 battles in which American troops were defeated, Na. Am. Resistance was put down by AM. Troops under General Anthony Wayne1795 – 12 Na. Am. Nations signed the Treaty of Greenville.Na. Am. Gave up parts of what later became Ohio & Indiana for a yearly payment of $10,000 from the federal government.Treaty allowed for more settlers to move into the region
28Washington’s Farewell Address Washington retires from office after being irritated by party politics & attacks on his character.Washington’s Farewell AddressListed the benefits of the federal government“The unity of government is a main pillar in the edifice [foundation] of your real independence of your home, your peace abroad; of your safety, of your property, of that very liberty which you so highly prize.”Warns against the party system“It (parties) agitates (stirs up) the Community w/ ill-founded jealousies & false alarms; kindles the animosity (anger) of one Against another it opens the door to foreign influence & corruption . . .”
29Continued . . . Stressed the importance of religion & morality “Where the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths (if we leave religion out of it), which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?”Warned against misuse of public credit“Cherish public credit One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible. . . Avoid the accumulation of debt ”Warned against permanent foreign alliances“It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances w/ any portion of the foreign world . . .”On an over-powerful military establishment“. . . Avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, & which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty.”
31Election of 1796Who won the election of 1796?49%68
32XYZ AffairFrench, angry over Jay’s Treaty, stopped American ships & seized goods while en route to Britain.Federalist called for war against FranceInstead, Adams sent negotiators to France.Tensions increased. Why?France demanded bribes from the Americans before they would negotiate, in what became known as the XYZ Affair
33Quasi-War w/ France1798 – Congress suspended trade w/ France & ordered the navy to capture French ships.= undeclared war at sea was called the Quasi-War.Convention of negotiations w/ France led to an agreementU.S. gave up all claims against France for damages to American shipping.France released the U.S. from the Treaty of 1778Quasi-War ENDED!!
34FYI - The CuttersFirst Coast Guard, known as “the cutters”, was established in 1790.
35Alien & Sedition Acts Results: Federalist pushed through 4 laws know as the Alien & Sedition Acts – were designed to destroy Jefferson’s Democratic-RepublicansStated:3 were aliens – people living in the country who are not citizensImmigrants could not become citizens for 14 years (rather than 5), thus weakening the republican party. (Why? French & Irish immigrants tended to vote republican.)Gave the President the power to imprison or deport immigrants deemed dangerous to the U.S. w/out a trial.Prevented Sedition – an incitement leading to a rebellion.Made it unlawful to say or print anything false or scandalous against the government or its officers.Results:These Sedition Acts virtually destroyed the First Amendment rights outline under the Constitution.Bolstered support for the republicans in 1800 election.
36States respond . . .Null & VoidVA – introduced interposition – “ If the fed’l gov.t did something unconstitutional , the state could interpose between the fed’l gov.t & the people to stop the illegal actionKentucky – advanced the theory of nullification – “ If the fed’l gov.’t passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify the law or declar it invalid
37A Hot Race . . .Election of 1800Closely contested & revealed a flaw in the system for selecting a presidentEach state chooses electors who cast 2 votes1 for president1 for vice-presidentJefferson & Burr had same # of electoral votesConstitution states the House of Representatives votes for president when there is a tie
38Election Results Who won? Federalist supported Burr resulted in tie votes more than 30 timesHamilton urged his followers in the Federalist Party to vote for Jefferson another tie resultedFeb – Jefferson promised NOT to dismantle Hamilton’s financial systemJefferson won the presidency by 1 voteResult: proved that power in the U.S. could be peacefully transferred
391800 Presidential Election 47%6553%73Based uponthis map, who won the election of 1800?
40Jefferson Takes Office Had a less formal style of presidencyDid not over-turn all of the Federalist policiestried to integrate Republican ideas into policies that the Federalist had already put in placeBegan paying off the federal debtCut government spendingDid away w/ the Whiskey tax, and . . .Planned to use local militia instead of a standing army
41Midnight Judges Judiciary Act of 1801 Passed by the Federalist majorityCreated 16 new federal judgesBefore leaving office – Adams appointed Federalist to these new positionsResult:Jefferson & Republicans were unhappy that Federalist controlled the courtsAfter taking office – Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 – doing away w/ the “midnight judges” & their officesJustice Samuel Chase’s impeachment – est. clear guidelines that judges couldn’t be removed from office simply because Congress disagreed w/ their decisions
42Marbury vs. Madison John Marshall Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Appointed by John AdamsServed for 34 yearsMade the S. Ct. a powerful & independent branch of the fed.’ gov.tHow?1803 – Marbury v. Madison – est. the Court’s right of judicial review – the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional & to strike down laws that were not.
43Louisiana PurchaseJefferson supported the idea of the U.S. expanding west – believed that a republic could survive only if most people owned their own land1800 French leader Napoleon Bonaparte convinced Spain to give LA back to FranceHe wanted to rebuild France’s empire in North AmericaU.S. feared that French control of the region would block U.S. western expansionFrench control of New Orleans could interfere w/ American trade along the Mississippi RiverJefferson told the U.S. Ambassador to France to make an offer to buy New Orleans & West Florida from France
44Louisiana Purchase, Cont. A surprising offer –French officials offered to sell all of Louisiana to the United States.Why?France needed the money to finance a war against Britain.Napoleon also hoped that U.S. control of Louisiana could challenge Britain’s power in North AmericaU.S. purchases Louisiana for $15 millionJefferson feared that he did not have the constitutional power to buy Louisiana, but agreed to the purchase because it was the country’s best interestLouisiana Purchase of 1803 almost doubled the size of the U.S.
47Lewis & Clark Expedition Prior to the purchase, Jefferson sent Meriweather Lewis & Lt. William Clark to explore the Louisiana TerritoryMay 1804 – the expedition set out from St. Louis, in present day MissouriSacagawea, a Shoshone Native American woman, assisted the groupThey crossed Great Plains & Rocky Mountains – reaching the Pacific in November 1805Returned – September 1806Expedition Results:Taught about western lands & pathsEst. relations w/ several Native American groupsCollected valuable scientific information
49Define the following words: ImpressmentEmbargoNon-Intercourse ActWar HawksNationalism
50War of 1812Causes:Britain's refusal to surrender western forts promised to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of ParisBelief that Britain was arming North American Indians fighting against Americans on the western frontier.Stopping of American ships by the Royal Navy on the high seas to search for deserters: i.e. British warship Leopard stopped the American warship Chesapeake to search for deserters; the Chesapeake refused & 3 Americans were killed
51War of 1812 – causes continued Impressment of seamen – forced enlistment of men - who had been born as British subjects; later naturalized as American citizensTrade embargo by France and Britain during the Napoleonic Wars, which resulted in the seizing of hundreds of American merchant ships.
52Summary of Reasons . . .Interference with American tradeImpressment of American sailorsMilitary aide to American IndiansSupport of War Hawks
531803 – Britain & France are @ war Trade Interference . . .1803 – Britain & France warBritain & France passed laws to stop the U.S. from trading with its enemyBritain stopped & seized American shipsBritain began the policy of impressment
54The Embargo Act ofCitizens called for a ban on trade with Britain in response to their violations of America’s neutralityPassed by congress and banned all trade w/ foreign nationsDamaged America’s economyNon-Intercourse Act passed; replaced the Embargo ActNIA – banned trade only w/ Britain & France, along w/ their colonies; Napoleon dropped trade restrictions against U.S.; ban on Britain remainedStated U.S. would resume trade w/ the first side to stop violating America’s neutrality
55Impressment . . .Impressment was the primary cause of the War of 1812.Why impressment?The reason is simple:Warships must remain fully manned during wartime. If, after a sea battle, a warship needed more sailors, a British merchantman could be stopped and sailors drafted. This was deemed more practical than having a warship break off from duty and return to a British port to draft more sailors.
563 Reasons to Impress There were three common methods of impressing: In British ports, press gangs made the rounds of inns, taverns, brothels, and ships in port "drafting" sailors for service. Generally, such drafting was done by applying a stout club firmly to the skull of the impressed sailor and carrying him to the ship.At sea, a British Man-of-war could stop any British merchantman and impress sailors to fill crew vacancies and obtain needed provisions to carry on the patrol.Under the Rules of War of 1756, the British Navy had the right to stop vessels at sea, including neutral ships at sea, and remove any British subjects found on board to serve in the British Navy.
57ContAnd that was the problem. America had the largest neutral fleet on the seas. The attitude of the Royal Navy was, Once an Englishman, always an Englishman. The British navy refused to recognize British subjects could become naturalized American citizens nor would it honor American sailors as neutrals. This was not the official position of the British government, however it refused to do anything about it for years.Jefferson and the War of 1812, /jparker/History% /War%2520of% jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nevadamercantile.com/jparker/History% /Section%252015A.htm&h=768&w=668&sz=78&tbnid=sylgn0ykVdTJxM:&tbnh=141&tbnw=122&hl=en&start=13&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwar%2Bof%2B1812%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26sa%3DG
58Tecumseh & Native American alliance w/ Britain Shawnee ChiefBorn near Springfield, OHLater moved to Indian territory to escape American settlersFurious over Native American lands being ceded to U.S. by the Delaware & Potawatomi tribesDuring War of 1812, allied himself with the BritishBattle of Tippecanoe – Indian defeat caused him to lose much of his supportKilled during the Battle of ThamesShawnees forced to retreat to land west of the MS riverTecumseh & Native American alliance w/ Britain
59War Hawks . . .Congressional leaders who supported war with Britain; saw war as the only optionLed by Henry ClayOther leaders:John C. CalhounFleix GrundySupported by the South & WestBritish trade restrictions hurt Southern planters & Western farmersBlamed the British for conflicts w/ Native AmericansFelt it would help to expand the US bordersWon support in Congress, who declared war for the first time in U.S. Historyv/s
60The War Hawks Timeline of Events 1807 – The Chesapeake Incident The U.S. declares warCongress calls for war, and President Madison agrees.The British realize they’ve gone too far, and send a peace commission with an offer to pay for damages, but the ambassadors arrive too late. The U.S. has just declared war.The North (which relies on foreign trade) accuses Madison of starting the war for no good reason. The war is nicknamed "Mr. Madison’s War."Timeline of Events1807 – The Chesapeake Incident1811 – Battle of Tippecanoe1812 – U.S. declares war.1813 – Battle of Lake Erie1813 – Battle of the Thames1814 – March on Washington, D.C.1814 – Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry)1814 – Treaty of Ghent1815 – Battle of New Orleans
61Washington Burns 1814 Main facts: British navy sails up Potomac, easily captures and burns U.S. capital.President Madison and wife, Dolley barely escape. She manages to save the only painting of President WashingtonBritish sea power made it easy to sail a whole army within 60 miles of D.C.British naval commander, George Cockburn, (Coburn) enjoyed burning things – destroyed three Maryland towns on the road to D.C.His soldiers were vets from the war against Napoleon – easily overcame the local militia and marched into the capital.
62FYIDolley Madison refused to leave until she rescued a portrait of George Washington and a copy of the Declaration of Independence.British burned every government building.Cockburn led his men into the House of Representatives and held a mock vote about whether to burn the Congress. The men approved.British used "Congreve rockets" in battle to scare the enemy. The rockets never hit anything, but they streaked overhead with a loud noise and looked very impressive.Results:Americans demoralized, but also angry. This becomes the last major battle the U.S. will lose to the British
63Washington Burns . . .Poorly trained militia attempts to defend the CapitolCockburn led his men into the House of Representatives and held a mock vote about whether to burn the Congress. The men approved.Dolley Madison refused to leave until she rescued a portrait of George Washington and a copy of the Declaration of Independence.British used "Congreve rockets" in battle to scare the enemy. The rockets never hit anything, but they streaked overhead with a loud noise and looked very impressive.The British head to BaltimoreBritish abandoned the city after bombarding them throughout the night – heavy casualties inflicted upon them by the Baltimore militiaFrancis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled BannerBattle of Lake Champlain – American victoryHartford Convention – New Englanders call for constitutional amendments to increase their region’s political power; they still opposed the warResults:Americans demoralized, but also angry. This becomes the last major battle the U.S. will lose to the British
64War of 1812 – Major Campaigns War of 1812 – Major Campaigns
65Advantages & Disadvantages . . . U.S. Licensed private ships to attack the British merchant ships@ Beginning of war, British navy was scattered far from the U.S.Well trained U.S. sailorsNew warships; carried more cannons that most British shipsAmerican navy had fewer than 20 shipsThe British had hundreds of shipsBegan to patrol the waterways along the U.S. coast and their trade routesBritish began blocking U.S. ports
66Alabama’s Part in the War of 1812 Horseshoe Bend Early 1800s - Upper Creek Indians living in present-day Georgia & Alabama were very upset by the continuing advancement of white settlers onto their lands.Tribal leaders advised self-control and also urged neutrality in the developing rift between the United States & Britain.the great Shawnee leader Tecumseh urged all Native Americans to halt the movement of white settlers into their territory
67Red Sticks vs White Sticks He later visited the southern tribesSupposedly left “red sticks” w/ those who supported himCherokee, Chickasaw & Choctaw refused to join himCreek tribes were splitRed Sticks vs White SticksHe urged the formation of aconfederation to end the encroachment onto Indian lands and their ways of life.He won many ardent supporters among the younger warriors.Agreed to align themselves Refused to fight against thew/ Britain Americans
68November 1811William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indian Territory assembled a force to march against Tenskwatawa, Tecumseh’s brotherThe Native American forces struck 1st – Battle of TippecanoeCasualties ran high; America wonMany Native Americans fled to CanadaIncluding Tecumseh
69Timeline leading to Horseshoe Bend 1812 – Congress declares war on Britain1813 – Red Sticks attack a group of White TuckabatcheeRed Sticks – intercepted by Burnt Corn Creek on their way home, successfully fought back & forced militia to retreat1813 –1813 –8/30/1813 – Ft. Mims – Red Sticks attack the “fort” killing several hundred settlers (including women & children)1813 – Andrew Jackson comes to Alabama – his volunteers attacked Red Stick & burned their villages to the ground, mistakenly killing some friendly tribes
70Horseshoe BendJackson's reputation began to take on legendary status during the Creek War.Sent (along w/ his militia) by Gov. Willie Blont to Alabama in order to avenge the Ft. Mims They attacked the Red Sticks wherever they encountered themOften burned their villages to the groundMistakenly attacked some friendly tribes Established Ft. Deposit south of Montgomery & Ft. Strother southwest of Gadsden as supply basesContinued attacks through the fall & winter of 1813
71Horseshoe Bend, Continued A large group of Red Sticks assembled together, constructing a fort along a horseshoe-shaped bend in the Tallapoosa River1000 warriors gathered under the leadership of Chief Menewa – longtime opponent of white settlement in the areaMarch 27, 1814 – Jackson attacked the Red Stick strongholdHis army contained approximately 1,500 soldiers & 600 Native Americans Fierce fighting took place· Tallapoosa nicknamed – river of blood· 800 Red Sticks killed· American lost fewer than 50 men· Battle made Jackson a legendWhen his militia unit was disbanded, he received a commission as a Major-General in the U.S. Army.Without authorization, he led his forces across the international boundary into Florida and seized a Spanish fort at Pensacola (November 1814).
73Horseshoe Bend – the Results The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was significant in several ways:The power of the Upper Creek was broken and the brief Creek War came to a close.The tribe was forced to relinquish more than 23 million acres of their homeland and move farther west.Extremely rich lands taken from the tribes in Georgia and Alabama were quickly opened to white settlers.The area rapidly became a prime source of cotton - engine of the Southern economy, and helped to revive the flagging institution of slavery.
74Horseshoe Bend & Andrew Jackson Jackson's reputation began to take on legendary status during the Creek War.When his militia unit was disbanded, he received a commission as a major-general in the U.S. Army.Without authorization, he led his forces across the international boundary into Florida and seized a Spanish fort at Pensacola (November 1814).Soon thereafter, Jackson achieved national fame in a heralded victory over the British at the Battle of New Orleans (January 1815).
75Invasion of Canada . . .Bank of the United States – had been closed down the year before - charter had not been renewed; the U.S. gov’t. had no where to borrow moneyPrivate bankers made it difficult to borrow money; they opposed the war & would not loan money to the gov’t.Madison decided to invade Canada anyhow from:DetroitNiagara FallsUp Hudson RiverAll 3 attacks failedWhy conquer Canada?Western farmers thought seizing Canada would end Native American attacksThe U.S was unable to successful invade Canada
76Beginning of the end . . .1814 – Napoleon’s empire collapsedEnabled the British to send more of their navy & troops to the United States.Strategy –forced the U.S. to make peaceNavy would attack American cites along the coastMarch south into New York from Montreal, cutting New England off from the rest of the U.S.Seize New Orleans & close the Mississippi River to western farmers
77War of Quick Review. . .1814 – British fleet enters the Chesapeake Bay, lands near D.C.Poorly trained militia attempts to defend the CapitolPresident Madison & other Government officials leave the cityThe White House & Capitol building are set ablaze – destroying bothThe British head to BaltimoreBritish abandoned the city after bombarding them throughout the nightheavy casualties inflicted upon them by the Baltimore militiaFrancis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled BannerBattle of Lake Champlain – American victoryHartford Convention – New Englanders call for constitutional amendments to increase their region’s political powerthey still opposed the war
78Francis Scott KeyThe story of our Star Spangled Banner goes like this:On September 13, 1814, the British wanted to destroy Fort McHenry by exploding it with rockets and bombs. Key was there watching Fort McHenry. He was a lawyer who hap been captured by the British and put in their ship's jail. But, he had a window and wrote about everything he saw.Key knew that as long as the flag was still there that we hadn't given up. All night, he watched and saw the "rockets red glare" and the "bombs bursting in air." In the morning, the torn up American flag was still there. He decided upon the appropriate name, the Star Spangled Banner and put it to the rhythm of a saloon song.
79Know!! Star Spangled Banner —Francis Scott Key, 1814 O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?On the shore dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream: 'Tis the star-spangled banner: O, long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!Know!!
80And where is that band who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion, A home and a country should leave us no more? Their blood has wash'd out their foul footsteps'pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave: And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.O thus be it ever when free-men shall stand Between their lov'd home and the war's desolation; Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land Praise the Pow'r that hath made and preserv'd us a nation! Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto: “In God is our trust!” And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
81The American flag . . . AKA “Old Glory” The Stars & Stripes flag gained two more two stars & two more stripes in 1795, after Kentucky & Vermont joined the Union. This flag flew over Fort McHenry during the War of 1812 & inspired Francis Scott Key to write “The Star-Spangled.”Congress realized that a flag would become too large if a stripe were added for every new state. They decided to keep the stripes at 13 – one for each of the original colonies- & add a star for each new state.Congress approved the first official flag on June 14, In 1818 Congress decided that there would always be 13 stripes. Stars would be added on July 4th in the year following the state’s admission to the Union. The exact shades of red & white were standardized in 1934.
82War Ends . . . Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814, signed; ending warRestored prewar boundariesDid not mention neutral rights or impressmentNo territories changed handsWhat did it do?Increased America’s prestige overseasGenerated a new sense of patriotism & national unity
83Patent – a writing securing to an inventor for a term of years the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention; a written document making a conveyance or transfer of public lands