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The Jefferson Era The War of 1812

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1 The Jefferson Era The War of 1812
Chapter 8, Section 4 Pages

2 Building Background Anger against Great Britain’s actions finally provoked the United States into the War of 1812. Britain’s great navy gave it a clear advantage at sea, but the war was also fought on several other fronts. Victories in major battles along the frontier gave Americans a new sense of unity.

3 War at Sea When the war began, the British navy had hundreds of ships.
The U.S. Navy had fewer than 20 ships and none of them as powerful as the British ships. Most of the British navy’s ships were scattered around the world. Although small, the U.S. Navy had well-trained sailors and some powerful new warships.

4 Battle Along the Canadian Border
Three attacks were planned – from Detroit, from Niagara Falls, and from up the Hudson River valley toward Montreal. The attack from Detroit failed when the British and Native Americans led by Tecumseh captured Fort Detroit. The other planned attacks failed when state militia soldiers refused to cross the Canadian border, arguing that they did not have to fight in a foreign country.

5 Early Leadership General William Hull led the army from Detroit to Canada in an attempt to take control, but he was forced to retreat. General William Henry Harrison made another attempt without luck and decided that as long as the British controlled Lake Erie, they would not be able to invade Canada. Naval battles were more successful. They navy was more prepared with three of the fastest frigates, or warships. On September 10, 1813, after a bloody battle along Lake Erie led by Oliver Hazard Perry, American ships destroyed the British naval force.

6 Battle Along the Canadian Border
In 1813 the U.S. went on the attack again. A key goal was to break Britain’s control of Lake Erie. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry sailed out to attack the British on September 10 in the Battle of Lake Erie. The battle ended when the British surrendered. With American control of Lake Erie, General William Henry Harrison march his arm


8 Battle Along the Canadian Border
With American control of Lake Erie, General William Henry Harrison marched his army into Canada. At the Battle of Thames River in October 1813, Harrison defeated a combined force of British soldiers and Native Americans. During the battle, Native American leader Tecumseh was killed. Harrison’s victory ended British power in the Northwest and Tecumseh’s death ended the alliance with the British.

9 The Creek War War with the American Indians erupted in the South.
Creek Indians, angry at American settlers for pushing into their lands, attacked settlers in 1813. A large for attacked Fort Mims on the Alabama River, destroying the fort and killing close to 250 people. In response, Andrew Jackson (commander of the Tennessee militia) gathered about 2,000 volunteers to move against the Creek nation..

10 The Creek War In the spring of 1814 Jackson attacked the Creek along the Tallapoosa River in Alabama. Jackson’s forces easily won the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The Treaty of Fort Jackson ended the Creek War and forced the Creek to give up millions of acres of their land.


12 The British Offensive In the spring of 1814, the British won the war with the French. They then could send more soldiers to America. In August 1814, the British marched into the capital of Washington, D.C., burning and destroying the city. The British then went on to attack Baltimore, but Baltimore was ready. The British attacked the city, but were unable to enter.

13 Fort McHenry Roads to Baltimore were barricaded, the harbor was blocked, and some 13,000 militiamen stood guard. One major part of the battle for Baltimore was the bombing of Fort McHenry. Frances Scott Key wrote the poem “Defence of Fort McHenry” (now known as the “Star-Spangled Banner”) to exemplify the patriotic feeling when he saw the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry when the battle was over. He watched as bombs burst over the fort at night. When he saw the American flag the next morning, he wrote the poem.


15 Battle of Lake Champlain
The British goal to capture Plattsburgh, a key city of the shore of Lake Champlain, was stopped when the American naval force on Lake Champlain defeated the British fleet on the lake in September 1814. The British decided after the Battle of Lake Champlain loss that the war in North America was too costly and unnecessary. In December 1814, in Ghent, Belgium, American and British representatives signed the Treaty of Ghent to end the war. The treaty did not change any of the existing borders.

16 The Treaty of Ghent Treaty ending the War of 1812.
Signed in Ghent, Belgium on December 24, 1814. The war produced feelings of patriotism in Americans for having stood up to the mighty British. Some called the war, “The Second War for Independence.”

17 One Final Battle One final battle was fought after the peace treaty was signed but before work reached the United States of the peace agreement. The Battle of New Orleans in December was a bloody battle in which the Americans were victorious. Andrew Jackson led the American army and became a hero. His fame helped him later to win the presidency in 1827.


19 The Hartford Convention
The Federalists in New England had opposed the war from the start. At the Hartford Convention, they drew up a list of proposed amendments to the Constitution. Once the word came of Jackson’s victory and the peace treaty, their grievances seemed unpatriotic and their party lost favor.

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