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THE WAR OF 1812. 1. Causes of the War a. Free seas and trade - neither Britain or France respected neutral rights - majority of Americans sympathized.

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Presentation on theme: "THE WAR OF 1812. 1. Causes of the War a. Free seas and trade - neither Britain or France respected neutral rights - majority of Americans sympathized."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE WAR OF 1812

2 1. Causes of the War a. Free seas and trade - neither Britain or France respected neutral rights - majority of Americans sympathized with France against Britain - British violations of neutral rights more blatant - impressments

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4 b. Frontier Pressures - Americans more ambitious for more land - Canada and Florida (England, Spain and Native Americans stood in the way. - Gen. William Henry Harrison (Gov. of Indiana Territory) destroyed the Native American Headquarters (Battle of Tippecanoe) and ended Indian Confederacy - British blamed US for conflict

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8 c. War Hawks - Congressional elections of 1810 brought new group of young Republicans - Came from frontier states (Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio) - Eager to go to war - Led by Henry Clay (Kentucky), John C. Calhoun (S. Carolina)

9 Henry Clay John C. Calhoun

10 2. A Divided Nation a. Election of Division of opinion seen in presidential election - Madison defeated De Witt Clinton of New York

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12 b. Opposition to the War - Outspoken criticism of the war – N. England merchants, Federalist politicians and Old Republicans

13 3. Military Defeats and Naval Victories - Madison based hope of victory on two things: 1. Napoleon's continued success in Europe 2. US land campaign against Canada

14 a. Invasion of Canada - Army poorly equipped, but initiated action - Launched 3 prong invasion of Canada - Easily repulsed by British defenders

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16 b. Naval Battles - Victories attributed to superior shipbuilding - USS Constitution – Old Ironsides raised morale by defeating and sinking a British ship - American privateers successful in capturing British merchant ships

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18 b. Naval battles cont. - British were successful in blockading the US coast – crippled trading and fishing - Victories at Lake Erie, the Thames River (near Detroit), and Lake Champlain ended the British campaign in NY & New England

19 b. Naval battles cont. - Prepared the way for Gen. Harrisons military victory at battle of Thames River (near Detroit) – which killed Tecumseh , Thomas Macdonough defeated British fleet on Lake Champlain - Result: British forced to retreat and abandon plan to invade New York and New England

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21 Lake Champlain Lake Champlain

22 c. Chesapeake Campaign , defeat of Napoleon enabled British to increase forces - British marched through DC – set fire to the White House, Capitol, and other buildings - Attempted to capture Ft. McHenry (Baltimore) - Origins of the Star Spangled Banner

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28 d. Southern Campaign - Battle of Horseshoe Bend – Andrew Jackson – ended power of Creek Nation - New Orleans – Andrew Jackson – defeated the British (fought 6 weeks after the signing of the peace treaty

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32 4. The Treaty of Ghent a. Halt to the fighting b. Return of all conquered territory c. Recognition of prewar boundary between Canada and the US

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34 5. Hartford Convention a. Before end of the war – New England came close to seceding from the Union b. Opposed the war c. Special convention held at Hartford, CT

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36 6. Wars Legacy a. US gained respect of other nations b. US accepted Canada as neighbor c. Federalist party came to an end as a national force d. Nullification talk and secession in New England set a precedent used by the South

37 e. Native Americans in the West were forced to give up large areas of land f. US factories were built – America took big step toward industrial self-sufficiency g. War heroes – Jackson and Harrison – political leaders h. Feeling of nationalism


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