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By: Carly N.. Lesson Questions Vocabulary Kowtow- to bow low Extraterritoriality-principle allowing westerners accused of a crime in China to be tried.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Carly N.. Lesson Questions Vocabulary Kowtow- to bow low Extraterritoriality-principle allowing westerners accused of a crime in China to be tried."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Carly N.

2 Lesson Questions

3 Vocabulary Kowtow- to bow low Extraterritoriality-principle allowing westerners accused of a crime in China to be tried in special, western-run courts instead of in Chinese courts Sphere of influence- an area in which a foreign nation has special economic privileges

4 A Position of Strength By 1500’s Portuguese reached India and Southeast Asia hoping to expand their trading empire In China the Ming emperors placed strict limits on foreign traders China allowed foreign ships to unload cargoes only at the ports of Macao and Guangzhou. Traders could only sell their goods to certain Chinese merchants By 1700’s two developments were underway that would effect China’s relations with the West Qing dynasty entered a long period of decline because of the high taxes, limited land, and increasing peasant population Qing dynasty could not grow enough food to survive Floods and drought caused famine, peasant revolts broke out The second development was the Industrial Revolution in western Europe The Industrial Revolution increased military power of European nations British used their military strength to back their demands for expanded trading rights with China

5 European Imperialism – 1700’s Europeans refused to kowtow, or bow down to the Chinese emperors – Europeans resented being restricted to Macao and Guangzhou – Europeans wanted to be accepted as equal partners in trade – Europeans demanded the right to trade at other Chinese ports Opium War – British diplomacy failed to bring change – In 1700’s the British sold opium that was grown in India to China – Other nations also entered the opium trade – 1800’s many Chinese had become addicted to the drug – The opium trade drained China’s supply of silver – China tried to stop drug trade by harsh laws – Users then used smugglers – Smugglers who were caught faced death – In 1839, the Chinese destroyed a British shipment of opium, and war broke out – In the war the Chinese were no match for the British

6 European Imperialism The unequal treaties – The Treaty of Nanjing ended the opium war (first unequal treaty) China had to accept British terms for peace, agreed to pay for opium that had been destroyed, gave Britain the island of Hong Kong, and had to open other ports to British trade – Chinese could no longer set the terms of trade – France, Russia, Germany, and the United states made similar treaties with Qing emperor – Westerners won the right to extraterritoriality – Westerners accused of crime in China could be tried in their own courts Increased foreign influence – By 1800’s western powers carved China into spheres of influence – The economic rights gave westerners political influence – Japan expanded into China – In 1800’s Japan adopted western technology and modernized its industries – In 1895 Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War – Japan won Taiwan and extended its influence over Korea

7 European Imperialism Open Door policy – The United States feared that European Nations might set up colonies in China – Under this policy, all nations were supposed to have equal access to trade with China – The policy failed but the United States used it to protect its own trade with China

8 Unrest and Revolution – Loss of territory for foreigners was one sign of China’s weakness in the Qing dynasty along with peasant revolts – in 1851 the Taiping Rebellion was the most serious peasant revolt which lasted for fourteen years – More than twenty million people were killed Efforts at reform – The Taiping Rebellion marked the beginning of a long revolution in China – Called for reforms in government and society – Reforms wanted to introduce modern technology to China – Reforms wanted to preserve Confucian culture – Set up factories to and dockyards to produce modern weapons and ships – In 1898, emperor Guang Xi supported the Hundred Days of Reforms – Emperor Guang Xi issued laws to update the civil service exam, organize western-style schools, and promote economic changes – Led by Ci Xi, conservatives opposed the reforms – In 1898, Ci Xi seized power as empress and ended the influence of the moderate reformers

9 Unrest and Revolution Boxer Rebellion – While reform efforts were underway, a growing number of foreign missionaries and business people were settling in China – Chinese hostility increased – Anti-foreign Chinese took strong action – Formed the Fists of Righteous Harmony, called the Boxers by Westerners, to expel all foreigners – In 1900, the Boxers attacked and killed many Chinese Christians and foreigners – Western powers organized an international army, which crushed the Boxers – China was forced to allow foreign troops on Chinese soil and foreign warships in Chinese waters Revolution of 1911 – Qing dynasty collapsed after Ci Xi’s death – In 1911, China declared itself a republic, ending the ancient system of imperial rule – From the country of China seemed ready to break into many pieces – Civil War raged, with many people claiming the right to rule China

10 Struggles of the Republic – In 1911, Dr. Sun Yatsen served as president of the new republic – Sun helped organize the Guomindang, or Nationalist party – Sun set out goals for China in “Three Principles of the People” First goal was calling for nationalism Second goal was supporting democracy Third goal was ensuring a decent living for all Chinese (livelihood) – Sun had little chance to achieve his goals – General Yuan Shikai forced Sun out of office in 1912 – War lords, or regional leaders with their own army, were fighting for power of China

11 Nationalists and Communists – Dr. Sun Yatsen rallied followers to his three principles during his years of turmoil – Organized an army to restore unity – Sun appointed officer Chiang Kai-shek to command the nationalist army – In 1928 when Sun died Chiang took over the leadership of the Nationalist party – By 1928, China was under Chiang’s control Attack on the Communists – Nationalists faced challenges to their authority – The nations economy was badly depressed – The nationalists teamed up with the Chinese Communist Party to expel foreigners and fight the warlords – The CCP hoped to gain control of nationalist party from within – In 1927, Chiang moved against the communists by expelling them from Guomindang and killed thousands of their supporters

12 Nationalists and Communists Long March – In the late 1920’s early 1930’s, Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the Chinese Communists – Mao thought communists would only survive in China with peasants support – Communists paid the peasants for the food they required unlike the other Chinese armies – Chiang launched a fierce campaign against the communists – In 1934, communists fled from Chiang’s armies – Mao led the communists 6000 miles to Shaanxi – communists set out on the dangerous “Long March” – It was a symbol of the bitter hardships the communists endured before gaining power in 1949 Japanese Invasion – In 1931, the Japanese seized Manchuria – In 1937, the Japanese launched an all-out war against China – Japan’s armies overran the most heavily populated regions of China – During WWII, Nationalists and Communists joined together to battle the Japanese – In 1945, with the defeat of Japan Mao’s forces held much of northern China


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