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Chapter 10: Inner and East Asia

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1 Chapter 10: Inner and East Asia

2 The Sui Dynasty (581-618) Yang Jian (Sui Wendi)
Established capital at Chang’an What did the Han Dynasty (Liu Bang) declare was the state philosophy? Used Daoism and Buddhism to unify China Founded Buddhist monasteries and appointed Buddhist monks as political advisors

3 Sui Dynasty cont. What was the Sui Dynasty’s greatest construction project? Completion of the Grand Canal aka the artificial Nile approx mi long links Yellow and Yangtze Rivers Facilitated trade, communication and the transportation of goods Also allowed for troops to be quickly dispatched to troubled areas of the empire


5 For more info on the Grand Canal:
Sui Dynasty cont. Sui Yangdi was tyrannical and waged expensive military campaigns After his death, Sui Dynasty died as well For more info on the Grand Canal:

6 Tang Dynasty (618-907) Founded by Li Yuan
Pushed aside by son Li Shimin Took title Tang Taizong Expanded empire-How? Established a tributary system as a result

7 Buddhism and the Tang Empire
Influence of Buddhism on Politics Importance of Mahayana Expansion of the empire Interaction w/Central Asia and India increased While many converted to Buddhism and Confucianism, many regions kept their own local religions and traditions Tang Empire-”cosmopolitan” Explain what this means.

8 Civil Service Examination
Process used to select public servants Could not prevent aristocratic influence Primary path to a career in government Relatives of employees were not permitted to take the exam Included questions about Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism-Why?

9 Economy and Society Economy grew in size and complexity
Still mainly agricultural Most land owned by aristocratic families Peasants overburdened by taxes forced into serfdom or slavery Tang Dynasty tried to reduce noble’s power and maximize tax revenue by adopting an “equal field” system What is an “equal field” system?

10 Economy cont. Led to increased rural prosperity and gov’t revenue when enforced Aristocracy learned how to manipulate the system Began accumulating large tracts of land Increase in population Period of social stability These pressured the government systems Tang Dynasty failed to resolve these problems

11 Economy cont. What were some of the innovations of this time period?
mastered art of steel manufacturing Introduction of cotton led to new textiles Invention of gunpowder

12 Trade Gov’t was leery of trade so they kept monopolies over key commodities ex. salt Paper currency introduced 8th/9th cent. Not backed by metal coins What happened as a result?

13 Trade cont. Introduction of credit
Led to developments In banking Complex calculations made easier w/the invention of the abacus Silk Road was revived and reached its peak during this time Chang’an became the eastern end of the Silk Road Became very rich! Canton became major port in Southern China Brought the bubonic plague

14 Trade cont. What were some of the traded goods?
Chinese viewed the world in a hierarchical manner How does the tributary system illustrate that?

15 Uighur and Tibetan Empires
Why were the Uighurs so important to trade? What role did Tibet play in the Tang Empire after the fall of the Uighurs?

16 Upheavals and Repression
Buddhism seen as undermining Confucian ideas of family and as a model for the state Push for a return to Confucianism Why else did the government want to return to Confucianism? What happened as a result?

17 The End of the Tang Empire
Military campaigns and overburdened tax system contributed to the empire’s downfall Internal strife-rebellions, funding cuts for the military, political and cultural disintegration

18 The Song Dynasty 960-1279 3 states emerged after the Tang:
Liao Empire (Khitan) North Gov’t centered on cities, but leaders preferred nomad camps Tangguts (Minyak) West Connected to the Tang Empire Song Dynasty Central China

19 Song Dynasty cont. Competition b/t the groups was inevitable
All three empires were very different-How? Song was cut off from Inner and Central Asia What did they do as a result?

20 Song Dynasty cont. Founded by Song Taisu
Could not take over the Khitan people Established Kaifeng where the Grand Canal intersects the Yellow River When pressure from the north increased, moved capital further south to Hangzhou On the coast of the Yangtze River delta Emperors here known as the Southern Song Also lost control over Tibet Despite political and military problems, ruled during economically prosperous time

21 The Liao and Jin Challenge

22 Liao and Jin Challenge cont.
Liao Empire ( ) Siberia to Central Asia Pastoral traditions Encouraged people to keep their individuality How? Introduced siege machines 1005: Song Dynasty began paying them an annual tribute of cash and silk…continued for more than a century Eventually got sick of paying

23 Liao and Jin challenge cont.
What did the Song do as a result? Who were the Jurchens? From Manchuria Eventually became enemies of the Song 1127-capturedSong Kaifeng Northern China left in Jurchen control Song allied themselves with the Mongols

24 Civil Service Examination
3 levels of exams given: Qualifying exam If pass, qualified for position, but most likely got positions at the local level as village teachers Could take the next exam; given every three years at the imperial capital Could apply for official positions Final exam-given every three years at the imperial palace Those who pass were eligible for high positions in the central bureaucracy or as district magistrates

25 Exams cont. Ignored claims of cheating
Exams were open to all males except criminals and members of restricted occupations Set up schools to provide education for potential candidates Still did not provide equal opportunity Open only to males Gov’t did not offer basic education Only those in upper classes could enter state schools Gov’t full of corruption and infighting Used positions to help family members get jobs-did not see that as nepotism- Why not?

26 Industry, Economy and Society during the Song
What were the scientific/technological advances during the Song Dynasty? Civil man outranked military man New interpretations of Confucian teachings emerged Called neo-Confucianism Who was Zhu Xi? Why was he important to the neo-Confucian movement? How did Buddhism change during this time which allowed it to continue in China?

27 Industry. Economy and society in the Song Dynasty cont.
What were the social implications for passing the civil service exams? What were the negative social implications for failing the exam? How did moveable type change the exam? How did moveable type change country life?

28 Economy and society in the Song Dynasty
Agriculture is still profitable What was city life like in Hangzhou? Began using credit- what did it depend on? Use of paper money caused severe inflation Land no longer the main source of wealth

29 Economy and society in Song Dynasty
How did the role of women in society change as society moved back towards Confucianism? What were the two ways in which marriage customs changed during this time?

30 New Kingdoms in East Asia
Did not rely on the civil service exam Most gov’t positions went to the higher classes Rich learned to read Chinese and Confucian classics

31 Korea Conquered by the Chinese during the Han Dynasty
After Han Dynasty collapsed in 220 CE, broke free of Chinese rule Remained a vassal of China Sui and Tang tried to take them over but failed Korea maintained independence but had tributary status “younger brother/older brother” relationship with China

32 Korea cont. 20% of the land was farmable
Main contribution: woodblock printing How did this work?

33 Japan Never fell under Chinese rule but adopted cultural hegemony
Most Chinese ideas in Japan came by way of Korea A lot of immigration to Japan from China and Korea 11% farmable land Japanese gov’t sent ppl to China to learn and adopt Chinese models

34 Japan cont. Did not copy everything-Explain. Fujiwara (645)
Adopted Chinese culture, religion and gov’t to unify Japan 646 Taika reforms (“great change”) Consolidated administration Extensive road construction Abolished private ownership of land and established equal field system Land redistributed w/generational change

35 Japan cont. 710-established new capital modeled after Chang’an in Nara
Emperor also served as chief priest of Shinto Why didn’t the dynasty ever change? Began to record history in Nihon Shoki (written in Chinese) Wrote legends in Kojiki (Japanses/Chinese mix)

36 Japan cont. How were women treated?
How did they contribute to Japanese culture? increase in military values Established Kamakura shogunate-explain. Emergence of the samurai

37 Vietnam (Annam) Political and economic life centered on the Red River Valley in the north and the Mekong River valley in the south Why was agriculture possible? What did they grow? Elites adopted many parts of Chinese culture as well

38 Vietnam cont. Dai Viet (936) How did Champa rival Dai Viet?
How did they interact with the Song Dynasty? How did the role of women in Vietnam differ from the role of women in China, Japan and Korea?

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