2The Sui Dynasty (581-618) Yang Jian (Sui Wendi) Established capital at Chang’anWhat did the Han Dynasty (Liu Bang) declare was the state philosophy?Used Daoism and Buddhism to unify ChinaFounded Buddhist monasteries and appointed Buddhist monks as political advisors
3Sui Dynasty cont.What was the Sui Dynasty’s greatest construction project?Completion of the Grand Canalaka the artificial Nileapprox mi longlinks Yellow and Yangtze RiversFacilitated trade, communication and the transportation of goodsAlso allowed for troops to be quickly dispatched to troubled areas of the empire
5For more info on the Grand Canal: Sui Dynasty cont.Sui Yangdi was tyrannical and waged expensive military campaignsAfter his death, Sui Dynasty died as wellFor more info on the Grand Canal:
6Tang Dynasty (618-907) Founded by Li Yuan Pushed aside by son Li ShiminTook title Tang TaizongExpanded empire-How?Established a tributary system as a result
7Buddhism and the Tang Empire Influence of Buddhism on PoliticsImportance of MahayanaExpansion of the empireInteraction w/Central Asia and India increasedWhile many converted to Buddhism and Confucianism, many regions kept their own local religions and traditionsTang Empire-”cosmopolitan”Explain what this means.
8Civil Service Examination Process used to select public servantsCould not prevent aristocratic influencePrimary path to a career in governmentRelatives of employees were not permitted to take the examIncluded questions about Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism-Why?
9Economy and Society Economy grew in size and complexity Still mainly agriculturalMost land owned by aristocratic familiesPeasants overburdened by taxes forced into serfdom or slaveryTang Dynasty tried to reduce noble’s power and maximize tax revenue by adopting an “equal field” systemWhat is an “equal field” system?
10Economy cont.Led to increased rural prosperity and gov’t revenue when enforcedAristocracy learned how to manipulate the systemBegan accumulating large tracts of landIncrease in populationPeriod of social stabilityThese pressured the government systemsTang Dynasty failed to resolve these problems
11Economy cont. What were some of the innovations of this time period? mastered art of steel manufacturingIntroduction of cotton led to new textilesInvention of gunpowder
12TradeGov’t was leery of trade so they kept monopolies over key commoditiesex. saltPaper currency introduced 8th/9th cent.Not backed by metal coinsWhat happened as a result?
13Trade cont. Introduction of credit Led to developments In bankingComplex calculations made easier w/the invention of the abacusSilk Road was revived and reached its peak during this timeChang’an became the eastern end of the Silk RoadBecame very rich!Canton became major port in Southern ChinaBrought the bubonic plague
14Trade cont. What were some of the traded goods? Chinese viewed the world in a hierarchical mannerHow does the tributary system illustrate that?
15Uighur and Tibetan Empires Why were the Uighurs so important to trade?What role did Tibet play in the Tang Empire after the fall of the Uighurs?
16Upheavals and Repression Buddhism seen as undermining Confucian ideas of family and as a model for the statePush for a return to ConfucianismWhy else did the government want to return to Confucianism?What happened as a result?
17The End of the Tang Empire Military campaigns and overburdened tax system contributed to the empire’s downfallInternal strife-rebellions, funding cuts for the military, political and cultural disintegration
18The Song Dynasty 960-1279 3 states emerged after the Tang: Liao Empire (Khitan)NorthGov’t centered on cities, but leaders preferred nomad campsTangguts (Minyak)WestConnected to the Tang EmpireSong DynastyCentral China
19Song Dynasty cont. Competition b/t the groups was inevitable All three empires were very different-How?Song was cut off from Inner and Central AsiaWhat did they do as a result?
20Song Dynasty cont. Founded by Song Taisu Could not take over the Khitan peopleEstablished Kaifeng where the Grand Canal intersects the Yellow RiverWhen pressure from the north increased, moved capital further south to HangzhouOn the coast of the Yangtze River deltaEmperors here known as the Southern SongAlso lost control over TibetDespite political and military problems, ruled during economically prosperous time
22Liao and Jin Challenge cont. Liao Empire ( )Siberia to Central AsiaPastoral traditionsEncouraged people to keep their individualityHow?Introduced siege machines1005: Song Dynasty began paying them an annual tribute of cash and silk…continued for more than a centuryEventually got sick of paying
23Liao and Jin challenge cont. What did the Song do as a result?Who were the Jurchens?From ManchuriaEventually became enemies of the Song1127-capturedSong KaifengNorthern China left in Jurchen controlSong allied themselves with the Mongols
24Civil Service Examination 3 levels of exams given:Qualifying examIf pass, qualified for position, but most likely got positions at the local level as village teachersCould take the next exam; given every three years at the imperial capitalCould apply for official positionsFinal exam-given every three years at the imperial palaceThose who pass were eligible for high positions in the central bureaucracy or as district magistrates
25Exams cont. Ignored claims of cheating Exams were open to all males except criminals and members of restricted occupationsSet up schools to provide education for potential candidatesStill did not provide equal opportunityOpen only to malesGov’t did not offer basic educationOnly those in upper classes could enter state schoolsGov’t full of corruption and infightingUsed positions to help family members get jobs-did not see that as nepotism- Why not?
26Industry, Economy and Society during the Song What were the scientific/technological advances during the Song Dynasty?Civil man outranked military manNew interpretations of Confucian teachings emergedCalled neo-ConfucianismWho was Zhu Xi? Why was he important to the neo-Confucian movement?How did Buddhism change during this time which allowed it to continue in China?
27Industry. Economy and society in the Song Dynasty cont. What were the social implications for passing the civil service exams? What were the negative social implications for failing the exam?How did moveable type change the exam?How did moveable type change country life?
28Economy and society in the Song Dynasty Agriculture is still profitableWhat was city life like in Hangzhou?Began using credit- what did it depend on?Use of paper money caused severe inflationLand no longer the main source of wealth
29Economy and society in Song Dynasty How did the role of women in society change as society moved back towards Confucianism?What were the two ways in which marriage customs changed during this time?
30New Kingdoms in East Asia Did not rely on the civil service examMost gov’t positions went to the higher classesRich learned to read Chinese and Confucian classics
31Korea Conquered by the Chinese during the Han Dynasty After Han Dynasty collapsed in 220 CE, broke free of Chinese ruleRemained a vassal of ChinaSui and Tang tried to take them over but failedKorea maintained independence but had tributary status“younger brother/older brother” relationship with China
32Korea cont. 20% of the land was farmable Main contribution: woodblock printingHow did this work?
33Japan Never fell under Chinese rule but adopted cultural hegemony Most Chinese ideas in Japan came by way of KoreaA lot of immigration to Japan from China and Korea11% farmable landJapanese gov’t sent ppl to China to learn and adopt Chinese models
34Japan cont. Did not copy everything-Explain. Fujiwara (645) Adopted Chinese culture, religion and gov’t to unify Japan646 Taika reforms (“great change”)Consolidated administrationExtensive road constructionAbolished private ownership of land and established equal field systemLand redistributed w/generational change
35Japan cont. 710-established new capital modeled after Chang’an in Nara Emperor also served as chief priest of ShintoWhy didn’t the dynasty ever change?Began to record history in Nihon Shoki (written in Chinese)Wrote legends in Kojiki (Japanses/Chinese mix)
36Japan cont. How were women treated? How did they contribute to Japanese culture?increase in military valuesEstablished Kamakura shogunate-explain.Emergence of the samurai
37Vietnam (Annam)Political and economic life centered on the Red River Valley in the north and the Mekong River valley in the southWhy was agriculture possible? What did they grow?Elites adopted many parts of Chinese culture as well
38Vietnam cont. Dai Viet (936) How did Champa rival Dai Viet? How did they interact with the Song Dynasty?How did the role of women in Vietnam differ from the role of women in China, Japan and Korea?