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REACTION PREDICTION Pre-AP CHEMISTRY. Reactants Products The arrow means yields or produces.

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1 REACTION PREDICTION Pre-AP CHEMISTRY

2 Reactants Products The arrow means yields or produces

3 (s) = solid (g)= gas (l)= liquid (aq)= aqueous (dissolved in water) = reversible reaction = catalyst ( in this case, Pt is the catalyst) = heat is added = heat is added

4 Practice translating a word equation: Solid zinc metal reacts with aqueous copper(II) sulfate to produce solid copper metal and aqueous zinc sulfate. Zn(s) + CuSO 4 (aq) Cu(s) + ZnSO 4 (aq)

5 Balancing Equations *Balancing is a trial and error process and is best done in pencil!! *We balance an equation so that the reactants and products each have the same number of atoms of each element (conservation of mass). *We must correctly write the formulas for all reactants and products before we balance.

6 Coefficients = Numbers placed in front of reactants and products 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O This means that 2 moles or molecules of hydrogen gas react with 1 mole or molecule of oxygen gas to produce 2 moles or molecules of water. The coefficients must be in the lowest ratio.

7 Hints: *Balance elements one at a time. *Balance polyatomic ions that appear on both sides of the equation as single units. (Ex. Count sulfate ions, not sulfur and oxygen separately) *Balance H and O last.

8 Zn + HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2

9 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + Ca(OH) 2 Al(OH) 3 + CaSO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Ca(OH) 2 2Al(OH) 3 + 3CaSO 4

10 K + H 2 O KOH + H 2 2K + 2H 2 O 2KOH + H 2

11 CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O

12 Fe + Cl 2 FeCl 3 2Fe + 3Cl 2 2FeCl 3

13 C 6 H 14 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2C 6 H O 2 12CO H 2 O

14 Al 4 C 3 + H 2 O CH 4 + Al(OH) 3 Al 4 C H 2 O 3CH 4 + 4Al(OH) 3

15 Balance the following chemical equations. 1.___ Ca + ____ H 2 O ____Ca(OH) 2 +____H 2 Ca + 2 H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 2. ____Cu 2 S + _____O 2 ____Cu 2 O + ______SO 2 2 Cu 2 S + 3 O 2 2 Cu 2 O + 2SO 2 3. _____MnO 2 + _____HCl ______MnCl 2 + ______H 2 O + _____Cl 2 MnO HCl MnCl 2 + 2H 2 O + Cl 2 4. _____NH 4 NO 3 + _____NaOH _____NH 3 + _____H 2 O + _____NaNO 3 NH 4 NO 3 + NaOH NH 3 + H 2 O + NaNO 3

16 5. ____Fe(OH) 3 _____Fe 2 O 3 + _____H 2 O 2Fe(OH) 3 Fe 2 O 3 + 3H 2 O 6. _____C 3 H 6 + _____O 2 _____CO 2 + _____H 2 O 2C 3 H 6 + 9O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O 7. __Zn(OH) 2 + __H 3 PO 4 __Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + ___H 2 O 3 Zn(OH) H 3 PO 4 Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6H 2 O 8. _____CO + _____Fe 2 O 3 _____Fe + _____CO 2 3 CO + Fe 2 O 3 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 9._ NH 4 Cl + __Ca(OH) 2 ___NH 3 + ___H 2 O + __CaCl 2 2NH 4 Cl + Ca(OH) 2 2 NH H 2 O + CaCl 2 10.___HC 2 H 3 O 2 + ___NaHCO 3 __CO 2 + __NaC 2 H 3 O 2 + __H 2 O HC 2 H 3 O 2 + NaHCO 3 CO 2 + NaC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O

17 Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the following reactions. Include physical state symbols. 1. Copper metal heated with oxygen gives solid copper(II) oxide. 2Cu(s) + O 2 (g) 2CuO(s)

18 2. Mixing ammonium nitrate and sodium hydroxide solutions gives aqueous sodium nitrate, ammonia gas, and water. NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaNO 3 (aq) + NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l)

19 3. Mercury(II) nitrate solution reacts with potassium iodide solution to give a mercury(II) iodide precipitate and potassium nitrate solution. Hg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2KI(aq) HgI 2 (s) + 2KNO 3 (aq)

20 4. Solutions of acetic acid and lithium hydroxide produce water and aqueous lithium acetate. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + LiOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + LiC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq)

21 5. Heating solid potassium chlorate in the presence of manganese dioxide catalyst produced potassium chloride and oxygen gas. 2KClO 3 (s) MnO 2 2KCl(s) + 3O 2 (g)

22 DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS -Reaction where a compound breaks down into two or more elements or compounds. Heat, electrolysis, or a catalyst is usually necessary.

23 A compound may break down to produce two elements. Ex. Molten sodium chloride is electrolyzed. 2NaCl 2Na + Cl 2

24 A compound may break down to produce an element and a compound. Ex. A solution of hydrogen peroxide is decomposed catalytically. 2H 2 O 2 2H 2 O + O 2

25 A compound may break down to produce two compounds. Ex. Solid magnesium carbonate is heated. MgCO 3 MgO + CO 2

26 Metallic carbonates break down to yield metallic oxides and carbon dioxide. K 2 CO 3 K 2 O + CO 2

27 Metallic chlorates break down to yield metallic chlorides and oxygen. 2RbClO 3 2RbCl + 3O 2

28 Metallic sulfites break down to yield metallic oxides and sulfur dioxide. BaSO 3 BaO + SO 2

29 Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen.

30 Sulfurous acid decomposes into water and sulfur dioxide.

31 Carbonic acid decomposes into water and carbon dioxide.

32 Hydrated salts decompose into the salt and water Sodium carbonate monohydrate is heated. Na 2 CO 3. H 2 O Δ Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O

33 Complete and balance the following reactions:

34 1. ZnCO 3 ZnCO 3 ZnO + CO 2

35 2. KClO 3 2KClO 3 2KCl + 3O 2

36 3. HgO 2HgO 2Hg + O 2

37 4. H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2

38 5. NaCl electricity > 2NaCl electricity > 2Na + Cl 2

39 6. H 2 SO 3 H 2 SO 3 H 2 O + SO 2

40 7. CaCO 3 CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2

41 8. H 2 O electricity > 2H 2 O electricity > 2H 2 + O 2

42 9. Na 2 SO 4. 10H 2 O Na 2 SO 4. 10H 2 O Na 2 SO 4 +10H 2 O

43 10. H 2 O 2 MnO2 > 2H 2 O 2 MnO2 >2H 2 O + O 2

44 11. CuSO 4. 5H 2 O CuSO 4. 5H 2 O CuSO 4 + 5H 2 O

45 ADDITION REACTIONS -also called synthesis, combination or composition reactions -Two or more elements or compounds combine to form a single product.

46 -A Group IA or IIA metal may combine with a nonmetal to make a salt. Ex. A piece of lithium metal is dropped into a container of nitrogen gas. 6Li + N 2 2Li 3 N

47 -Two nonmetals may combine to form a molecular compound. C + O 2 CO 2

48 -Two compounds combine to form a single product. Sulfur dioxide gas is passed over solid calcium oxide. SO 2 + CaO CaSO 3

49 -A metallic oxide plus carbon dioxide yields a metallic carbonate. (Carbon keeps the same oxidation state) Li 2 O + CO 2 Li 2 CO 3

50 -A metallic oxide plus sulfur dioxide yields a metallic sulfite. (Sulfur keeps the same oxidation state) K 2 O + SO 2 K 2 SO 3

51 -A metallic oxide plus water yields a metallic hydroxide. CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2

52 -A nonmetallic oxide plus water yields an acid. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3

53 Complete and balance the following equations:

54 1. Li + I 2 2Li + I 2 2LiI

55 2. Mg + N 2 3Mg + N 2 Mg 3 N 2

56 3. SO 3 + H 2 O SO 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4

57 4. Sr + S Sr + S SrS

58 5. Mg + O 2 2Mg + O 2 2MgO

59 6. Ag + O 2 4Ag + O 2 2Ag 2 O

60 7. Na 2 O + H 2 O Na 2 O + H 2 O 2NaOH

61 8. SO 2 + H 2 O SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3

62 9. BaO + CO 2 BaO + CO 2 BaCO 3

63 10. CaO + SO 2 CaO + SO 2 CaSO 3

64 Double Replacement (metathesis) Two compounds react to form two new compounds. All double replacement reactions must have a "driving force" that removes a pair of ions from solution. Ions keep their same charges as reactants and products.

65 Formation of a precipitate: A precipitate is an insoluble substance formed by the reaction of two aqueous substances. Two ions bond together so strongly that water can not pull them apart.

66

67

68 SOLUBILITY SONG To the tune of My Favorite Things from The Sound of Music My Favorite Things Nitrates and Group One and Ammonium, These are all soluble, a rule of thumb. Then you have chlorides, theyre soluble fun, All except Silver, Lead, Mercury I. Then you have sulfates, except for these three: Barium, Calcium and Lead, you see. Worry not only few left to go still. We will do fine on this test. Yes, we will! Then you have the--- Insolubles Hydroxide, Sulfide and Carbonate and Phosphate, And all of these can be dried!

69 Ex. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium bromide are mixed. AgNO 3 (aq) + LiBr(aq) AgBr(s) + LiNO 3 (aq)

70 Formation of a gas: Gases may form directly in a double replacement reaction or can form from the decomposition of a product such as H 2 CO 3 or H 2 SO 3. (Don't leave carbonic or sulfurous acids, or ammonium hydroxide as products of double replacement reactions, decompose them!)

71 Ex. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to a solution of potassium sulfite. 2HCl(aq) + K 2 SO 3 (aq) 2KCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g)

72 Ex. A solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a solution of ammonium chloride. NaOH(aq)+ NH 4 Cl(aq) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) + NaCl(aq)

73 Formation of a molecular substance: When a molecular substance such as water or acetic acid is formed, ions are removed from solution and the reaction "works".

74 Ex. Dilute solutions of lithium hydroxide and hydrobromic acid are mixed. LiOH(aq) + HBr(aq) LiBr(aq) + H 2 O

75 Complete and balance the following equations:

76 1. NaOH + CuSO 4 2NaOH + CuSO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + Cu(OH) 2 (s)

77 2. NH 4 I + AgNO 3 NH 4 I + AgNO 3 NH 4 NO 3 + AgI(s)

78 3. K 2 CO 3 + Ba(OH) 2 K 2 CO 3 + Ba(OH) 2 2KOH + BaCO 3 (s)

79 4. KOH + HI KOH + HI KI + H 2 O(l)

80 5. K 2 CO 3 + HNO 3 K 2 CO 3 + 2HNO 3 2KNO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2

81 6. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + BaCl 2 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + BaCl 2 2NH 4 Cl + BaSO 4 (s)

82 7. Na 2 S + NiSO 4 Na 2 S + NiSO 4 NiS(s) + Na 2 SO 4

83 8. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + KBr Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + 2KBr PbBr 2 (s) + 2KNO 3

84 9. Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + Ba(OH) 2 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Ba(OH) 2 2Fe(OH) 3 (s) + 3BaSO 4 (s)

85 10. Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 + KI Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 + 2KI 2KNO 3 + Hg 2 I 2 (s)

86 Single Replacement Reaction where one element displaces another in a compound. One element is oxidized and another is reduced. A + BC B + AC

87

88 Active metals replace less active metals or hydrogen from their compounds in aqueous solution. Use an activity series to determine the activity of metal.

89

90 Ex. Magnesium turnings are added to a solution of iron(III) chloride. 3Mg(s) + 2FeCl 3 (aq) 2Fe(s) + 3MgCl 2 (aq)

91 Ex. Sodium is added to water. 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g) Reactions of Alkali metals

92 Ex. Fe + H 2 O Fe + H 2 O no reaction

93 Active nonmetals replace less active nonmetals from their compounds in aqueous solution. Each halogen will displace heavier halogens from their binary salts.

94 Activity Series of Nonmetals Most Active F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 Least Active I 2

95 Ex. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of potassium iodide. Cl 2 (g) + 2KI(aq) I 2 (s) + 2KCl(aq)

96 Ex. I 2 + KCl I 2 + KCl no reaction

97 Complete and balance the following equations:

98 1. Zn + HCl Zn +2 HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2

99 2. Br 2 + NaCl Br 2 + NaCl No Reaction

100 3. F 2 + NaBr F 2 + 2NaBr 2NaF + Br 2

101 4. Al + CuSO 4 2Al + 3CuSO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Cu

102 5. Cu + AgNO 3 Cu + 2AgNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Ag

103 6. Cd + CuSO 4 Cd + CuSO 4 CdSO 4 + Cu

104 7. K + H 2 O 2K + 2H 2 O 2KOH + H 2

105 8. Mg + H 2 SO 4 Mg + H 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 + H 2

106 9. Ag + HCl Ag + HCl No Rxn

107 10. I 2 + KCl I 2 + KCl No Rxn

108 11. Ca + H 2 O Ca + 2H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 2

109 12. Zn + H 2 O Zn + H 2 O No Rxn

110 COMBUSTION REACTIONS

111 In the presence of excess oxygen, most hydrocarbons and alcohols can undergo complete combustion reactions to form carbon dioxide and water. The only tricky part is balancing the reaction. Balance the C first, H second, and O third.

112 Ex. Ethane (C 2 H 6 ) burns in air. 2C 2 H 6 + 7O 2 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O

113 Ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) burns C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O

114 Complete and balance the reactions for the combustion of the following compounds:

115 1. CH 4 CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O

116 2. C 2 H 2 2C 2 H O 2 4CO 2 + 2H 2 O

117 3. CH 3 OH 2CH 3 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 4H 2 O

118 4. C 6 H 12 O 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O

119 5. C 8 H 18 2C 8 H O 2 16CO H 2 O

120 6. C 3 H 8 C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O

121 7. C 6 H 6 2C 6 H O 2 12CO 2 + 6H 2 O

122 8. C 2 H 4 C 2 H 4 + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 2H 2 O

123 9. C 35 H 72 C 35 H O 2 35CO H 2 O

124 10. C 3 H 7 OH 2C 3 H 7 OH + 9O 2 6CO 2 + 8H 2 O

125 SYNTHESIS AND DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS

126 Complete and balance the following equations:

127 1. Sr + O 2 2Sr + O 2 2SrO

128 2. Na + O 2 4Na + O 2 2Na 2 O

129 3. K + Cl 2 2K + Cl 2 2KCl

130 4. Ca + F 2 Ca + F 2 CaF 2

131 5. sodium + iodine 2Na + I 2 2NaI

132 6. magnesium + oxygen 2Mg + O 2 2MgO

133 7. hydrogen + chlorine H 2 + Cl 2 2HCl

134 8. silver + sulfur 2Ag + S Ag 2 S

135 9. calcium oxide + water CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2

136 10. sulfur trioxide + water SO 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4

137 11. MgBr 2 MgBr 2 Mg + Br 2

138 12. AlCl 3 2AlCl 3 2Al + 3Cl 2

139 13. H 2 O 2H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2

140 14. KI 2KI 2K + I 2

141 15. NaCl 2NaCl 2Na + Cl 2

142 16. nickel(II) chlorate Ni(ClO 3 ) 2 NiCl 2 + 3O 2

143 SINGLE AND DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS

144 Write and balance the following reactions:

145 1. Zn(s) + CuSO 4 (aq) Zn(s) + CuSO 4 (aq) ZnSO 4 (aq) + Cu(s)

146 2. Cl 2 (g) + KI(aq) Cl 2 (g) + 2KI(aq) 2KCl(aq) + I 2 (s)

147 3. Ni(s) + MgSO 4 (aq) Ni(s) + MgSO 4 (aq) No Reaction

148 4. Br 2 (l) + CaCl 2 (aq) Br 2 (l) + CaCl 2 (aq) No Rxn

149 5. zinc + copper(II) nitrate Zn(s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Cu(s) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)

150 6. calcium + hydrochloric acid Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)

151 7. copper(II) nitrate + silver Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Ag(s) No Rxn

152 8. sodium iodide + bromine 2NaI(aq) + Br 2 (l) 2NaBr(aq) + I 2 (s)

153 9. sodium + water 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g)

154 10. FeCl 2 + K 2 S FeCl 2 (aq) + K 2 S(aq) FeS(s) + 2KCl(aq)

155 11. ZnCl 2 + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ZnCl 2 (aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + PbCl 2 (s)

156 12. CaCl 2 + Na 2 CO 3 CaCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CaCO 3 ( s )

157 13. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + BaCl 2 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) 2NH 4 Cl(aq) + BaSO 4 (s)

158 14. sodium hydroxide + acetic acid NaOH(aq) + HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l)

159 15. copper(II) sulfate + ammonium sulfide CuSO 4 (aq) + (NH 4 ) 2 S(aq) CuS(s) + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq)

160 MIXED EQUATION WORKSHEET #1 Complete the word equation, write the formula equation, balance it and identify the type of reaction. You many abbreviate as S, D, SR, DR, and C.

161 1. Magnesium hydroxide + nitric acid magnesium hydroxide + nitric acid magnesium nitrate + water Mg(OH) 2 + 2HNO 3 Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + 2H 2 O DR

162 2. Complete combustion of methane (CH 4 ) methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Combustion

163 3. Chlorine + sodium bromide chlorine + sodium bromide bromine + sodium chloride Cl 2 + 2NaBr Br 2 + 2NaCl Single Replacement

164 4. Aluminum + sulfuric acid aluminum + sulfuric acid aluminum sulfate + hydrogen 2Al + 3H 2 SO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3H 2 Single replacement

165 5. Sulfuric acid + sodium acetate Sulfuric acid + sodium acetate sodium sulfate + acetic acid H 2 SO 4 + 2NaC 2 H 3 O 2 Na 2 SO 4 + 2HC 2 H 3 O 2 Double replacement

166 6. Heating calcium carbonate calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Decomposition

167 7. Heating mercuric oxide mercuric oxide mercury + oxygen 2HgO 2Hg + O 2 Decomposition

168 8. Zinc + silver nitrate Zinc + silver nitrate zinc nitrate + silver Zn + 2AgNO 3 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Ag Single Replacement

169 9. Burning sulfur Sulfur + oxygen sulfur dioxide S + O 2 SO 2 synthesis

170 10. Heating sodium chlorate sodium chlorate sodium chloride + oxygen 2NaClO 3 2NaCl + 3O 2 Decomposition

171 11. Zinc chloride + ammonium sulfide Zinc chloride + ammonium sulfide zinc sulfide + ammonium chloride ZnCl 2 + (NH 4 ) 2 S ZnS + 2NH 4 Cl double replacement

172 12. Aluminum hydroxide + hydrochloric acid Aluminum hydroxide + hydrochloric acid aluminum chloride + water Al(OH) 3 + 3HCl AlCl 3 + 3H 2 O Double replacement

173 13. Calcium + steam Calcium + steam calcium hydroxide + hydrogen Ca + 2H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 Single replacement

174 14. Heating carbonic acid carbonic acid water + carbon dioxide H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2 Decomposition

175 15. Electrolysis of sodium chloride Sodium chloride sodium + chlorine 2NaCl 2Na + Cl 2 Decomposition

176 16. Combustion of propane (C 3 H 8 ) Propane + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 +4 H 2 O Combustion

177 17. Bromine + potassium iodide Bromine + potassium iodide Iodine + potassium bromide Br 2 + 2KI I 2 + 2KBr Single Replacement

178 18. Magnesium + hydrochloric acid Magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen Mg + 2HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 Single replacement

179 19. Sodium hydroxide + acetic acid Sodium hydroxide + acetic acid sodium acetate + water NaOH + HC 2 H 3 O 2 NaC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O Double replacement

180 20. Burning hydrogen hydrogen + oxygen water 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Synthesis or combustion

181 21. Zinc + sulfuric acid Zinc + sulfuric acid zinc sulfate + hydrogen Zn + H 2 SO 4 ZnSO 4 + H 2 single replacement

182 22. Heating magnesium carbonate magnesium carbonate magnesium oxide + carbon dioxide MgCO 3 MgO + CO 2 Decomposition

183 23. Sodium + chlorine Sodium + chlorine sodium chloride 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl Synthesis

184 24. Lead(II) nitrate + sodium iodide Lead(II) nitrate + sodium iodide lead (II) iodide + sodium nitrate Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + 2NaI PbI 2 + 2NaNO 3 Double replacement

185 25. Silver nitrate + sodium sulfide Silver nitrate + sodium sulfide silver sulfide + sodium nitrate 2AgNO 3 + Na 2 S Ag 2 S + 2NaNO 3 Double replacement

186 26. Iodine + potassium chloride Iodine + potassium chloride No Reaction

187 27. Magnesium oxide + water Magnesium oxide + water magnesium hydroxide MgO + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 synthesis

188 MIXED EQUATION WORKSHEET #2

189 Complete the word equation, write the formula equation, balance it and identify the type of reaction. You many abbreviate as S, D, SR, DR, and C.

190 1. sodium hydrogen carbonate + hydrochloric acid sodium hydrogen carbonate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + water + carbon dioxide NaHCO 3 + HCl NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 double replacement

191 2. Complete combustion of ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) Ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O Combustion

192 3. sulfurous acid + magnesium hydroxide sulfurous acid + magnesium hydroxide water + magnesium sulfite H 2 SO 3 + Mg(OH) 2 2H 2 O + MgSO 3 double replacement

193 4. carbonic acid + lithium hydroxide carbonic acid + lithium hydroxide water + lithium carbonate H 2 CO 3 + 2LiOH 2H 2 O + Li 2 CO 3 Double replacement

194 5. gold + sulfuric acid gold + sulfuric acid No Reaction

195 6. aluminum + fluorine aluminum + fluorine aluminum fluoride 2Al + 3F 2 2AlF 3 Synthesis

196 7. calcium oxide + water calcium oxide + water calcium hydroxide CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 Synthesis

197 8. acetic acid + sodium hydroxide acetic acid + sodium hydroxide water + sodium acetate HC 2 H 3 O 2 + NaOH H 2 O +NaC 2 H 3 O 2 Double replacement

198 9. potassium chloride + lead(II) nitrate potassium chloride + lead(II) nitrate potassium nitrate + lead(II) chloride 2KCl + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 2KNO 3 + PbCl 2 Double replacement

199 10. carbon monoxide + oxygen carbon monoxide + oxygen carbon dioxide 2CO + O 2 2CO 2 Synthesis

200 11. sodium + chlorine sodium + chlorine sodium chloride 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl Synthesis

201 12. dinitrogen pentoxide + water dinitrogen pentoxide + water nitric acid N 2 O 5 + H 2 O H 2 N 2 O 6 2HNO 3 Synthesis

202 13. bromine + sodium chloride bromine + sodium chloride No rxn

203 14. potassium chloride + mercury(I) nitrate potassium chloride + mercury(I) nitrate potassium nitrate + mercury(I) chloride 2KCl + Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 2KNO 3 + Hg 2 Cl 2 Double replacement

204 15. sulfur dioxide + water sulfur dioxide + water sulfurous acid SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3 Synthesis

205 16. lithium oxide + water lithium oxide + water lithium hydroxide Li 2 O + H 2 O 2LiOH Synthesis

206 17. heating zinc carbonate zinc carbonate zinc oxide + carbon dioxide ZnCO 3 ZnO + CO 2 Decomposition

207 18. silver nitrate + sodium chloride silver nitrate + sodium chloride silver chloride + sodium nitrate AgNO 3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO 3 Double replacement

208 19. heating beryllium chlorate beryllium chlorate beryllium chloride + oxygen Be(ClO 3 ) 2 BeCl 2 + 3O 2 Decomposition

209 20. electrolysis of water water hydrogen + oxygen 2H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2 Decomposition

210 21. complete combustion of butane (C 4 H 10 ) Butane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 2C 4 H O 2 8CO H 2 O Combustion

211 22. iron(II) sulfate + ammonium sulfide iron(II) sulfate + ammonium sulfide iron(II) sulfide + ammonium sulfate FeSO 4 + (NH 4 ) 2 S FeS + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Double replacement

212 23. lithium + water lithium + water lithium hydroxide + hydrogen 2Li + 2H 2 O 2LiOH + H 2 Single replacement

213 24. potassium oxide + water potassium oxide + water potassium hydroxide K 2 O + H 2 O 2KOH Synthesis

214 25. silver + sulfur silver + sulfur silver sulfide 2Ag + S Ag 2 S Synthesis

215 26. sodium + water sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2 Single replacement

216 27. calcium hydroxide + ammonium sulfate calcium hydroxide + ammonium sulfate calcium sulfate + ammonia + water Ca(OH) 2 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 CaSO 4 + 2NH 3 + 2H 2 O Double replacement

217 NET IONIC EQUATIONS

218 Net ionic equations show only the species actually involved in the reaction. As you first learn to write net ionic equations, you will write three different equations for each reaction.

219 Steps in writing net ionic equations:

220 1. Write the complete molecular equation. (This is the type of equation that you are accustomed to writing.)

221 2. Write the complete ionic equation. To do this, you must ionize everything that is soluble and ionized in solution. Everything else is left together. Do not ionize solids, gases or weak electrolytes.

222 3. Write the net ionic equation. To do this, cancel out all ions that are not participating in the reaction (spectator ions) and rewrite the equation.

223 Sodium chloride + silver nitrate 1. NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl(s) 2. Na + + Cl - + Ag + + NO 3 - Na + + NO AgCl(s) 2. Na + + Cl - + Ag + + NO 3 - Na + + NO AgCl(s) 3. Cl - + Ag + AgCl

224 1. 2HCl + Ba(OH) 2 2H 2 O + BaCl H + + 2Cl - + Ba OH - 2H 2 O + Ba Cl H + + 2Cl - + Ba OH - 2H 2 O + Ba Cl H + + 2OH - 2H 2 O H + + OH - H 2 O Ex. HCl + Ba(OH) 2

225 Write net ionic equations for the following reactions:

226 1. KCl(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2KCl(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2KNO 3 (aq) + PbCl 2 (s) 2K + + 2Cl - + Pb NO 3 - 2K + + 2NO PbCl 2 Pb Cl - PbCl 2

227 2. HCl(aq) + CaSO 3 (s) 2HCl(aq) + CaSO 3 (s) H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g) + CaCl 2 (aq) 2H + + 2Cl - + CaSO 3 H 2 O + SO 2 + Ca Cl - 2H + + CaSO 3 H 2 O + SO 2 + Ca 2+

228 3. Zn(s) + O 2 (g) 2Zn(s) + O 2 (g) 2ZnO(s)

229 4. Li(s) + H 2 O(l) 2Li(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2LiOH(aq) + H 2 (g) 2Li(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2Li + +2OH - (aq) + H 2 (g)

230 5. Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaBr 2 (aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaBr 2 (aq) 2NaBr(aq) + BaSO 4 (s) 2Na + + SO Ba Br - 2Na + + 2Br - + BaSO 4 SO Ba 2+ BaSO 4

231 6. MgCO 3 (s) MgCO 3 (s) MgO(s) + CO 2 (g)

232 7. AgNO 3 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2AgNO 3 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) Ag 2 CO 3 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) 2Ag + + 2NO Na + + CO 3 2- Ag 2 CO 3 + 2Na + + 2NO 3 - 2Ag + + CO 3 2- Ag 2 CO 3

233 8. Na 2 S(aq) + HCl(aq) Na 2 S(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H 2 S(g) 2Na + + S H + + 2Cl - 2Na + + 2Cl - + H 2 S S H + H 2 S

234 9. H 2 SO 3 (aq) H 2 SO 3 (aq) H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g)

235 10. Cl 2 (g) + NaI(aq) Cl 2 (g) + 2NaI(aq) I 2 (s) + 2NaCl(aq) Cl 2 + 2Na + + 2I - I 2 + 2Na + + 2Cl - Cl 2 + 2I - I 2 + 2Cl -

236 EXTRA EQUATION WORKSHEET PRE-AP CHEMISTRY

237 Complete the word equation, write the formula equation, balance it and identify the type of reaction. You many abbreviate as S, D, SR, DR, and C.

238 1. heating magnesium carbonate magnesium carbonate magnesium oxide + carbon dioxide MgCO 3 MgO + CO 2 Decomposition

239 2. complete combustion of propanol (C 3 H 7 OH) propanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 2C 3 H 7 OH + 9O 2 6CO 2 + 8H 2 O Combustion

240 3. sulfur + oxygen sulfur + oxygen sulfur dioxide S + O 2 SO 2 Synthesis

241 4. sulfuric acid + cadmium sulfuric acid + cadmium cadmium sulfate + hydrogen H 2 SO 4 + Cd CdSO 4 + H 2 Single Replacement

242 5. sulfur dioxide + water sulfur dioxide + water sulfurous acid SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3 Synthesis

243 6. hydrochloric acid(aq) + calcium carbonate(s) hydrochloric acid(aq) + calcium carbonate(s) carbon dioxide(g) + water(l) + calcium chloride(aq) 2HCl + CaCO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O + CaCl 2 Double replacement

244 7. net ionic equation for #6 1. 2HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + CaCl 2 (aq) 2. 2H + + 2Cl - + CaCO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca Cl H + + CaCO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O + Ca 2+

245 8. silver nitrate (aq)+ hydrochloric acid (aq) silver nitrate (aq)+ hydrochloric acid (aq) silver chloride(s) + nitric acid(aq) AgNO 3 + HCl AgCl + HNO 3 Double replacement

246 9. net ionic equation for #8 1. AgNO 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) AgCl(s) + HNO 3 (aq) 2. Ag + + NO H + + Cl - AgCl(s) + H + + NO Ag + + Cl - AgCl(s)

247 10. barium nitrate(aq) + potassium sulfate (aq) barium nitrate(aq) + potassium sulfate (aq) barium sulfate(s) + potassium nitrate(aq) Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + K 2 SO 4 BaSO 4 + 2KNO 3 Double Replacement

248 11. net ionic equation for #10 1. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + K 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2KNO 3 (aq) 2. Ba NO K + + SO 4 2- BaSO 4 + 2K + + 2NO Ba 2+ + SO 4 2- BaSO 4

249 12. sodium hydroxide + phosphoric acid sodium hydroxide + phosphoric acid sodium phosphate + water 3NaOH + H 3 PO 4 Na 3 PO 4 + 3H 2 O Double replacement

250 13. iodine + rubidium chloride iodine + rubidium chloride No Rxn

251 14. magnesium(s) + copper(II) sulfate(aq) magnesium(s) + copper(II) sulfate(aq) magnesium sulfate(aq) + copper(s) Mg + CuSO 4 MgSO 4 + Cu Single replacement

252 15. net ionic equation for #14 1. Mg(s) + CuSO 4 (aq) MgSO 4 (aq) + Cu(s) 2. Mg + Cu 2+ + SO 4 2- Mg 2+ +SO Cu 3. Mg + Cu 2+ Mg 2+ + Cu

253 16. ammonium nitrate(aq) + sodium hydroxide(aq) ammonium nitrate(aq) + sodium hydroxide(aq) ammonia (g)+ water (l) + sodium nitrate (aq) NH 4 NO 3 + NaOH NH 3 + H 2 O + NaNO 3 Double replacement

254 17. net ionic equation for #16 1. NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + NaOH(aq) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) + NaNO 3 (aq) 2. NH NO Na + + OH - NH 3 + H 2 O + Na + + NO NH OH - NH 3 + H 2 O

255 18. potassium(s) + water(l) potassium(s) + water(l) potassium hydroxide(aq) + hydrogen(g) 2K + 2H 2 O 2KOH + H 2 Single Replacement

256 19. net ionic equation for # K(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H 2 (g) 2. 2K + 2H 2 O 2K + + 2OH - + H 2

257 20. sodium bromide(aq) + chlorine(g) sodium bromide(aq) + chlorine(g) sodium chloride + bromine 2NaBr + Cl 2 2NaCl + Br 2 Single replacement

258 21. net ionic equation for # NaBr(aq) + Cl 2 (g) 2NaCl(aq) + Br 2 (l) 2. 2Na + + 2Br - + Cl 2 2Na + + 2Cl - + Br Br - + Cl 2 2Cl - + Br 2

259 22. aluminum + nitrogen aluminum + nitrogen aluminum nitride 2Al + N 2 2AlN Synthesis

260 23. sodium sulfide(aq) + hydrochloric acid(aq) sodium sulfide(aq) + hydrochloric acid(aq) sodium chloride (aq) + hydrogen sulfide (g) Na 2 S + 2HCl 2NaCl + H 2 S Double replacement

261 24. net ionic equation for #23 1. Na 2 S(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H 2 S(g) 2. 2Na + + S H + + 2Cl - 2Na + + 2Cl - + H 2 S 3. S H + H 2 S

262 25. heating magnesium sulfate heptahydrate magnesium sulfate heptahydrate magnesium sulfate + water MgSO 4. 7H 2 O MgSO 4 + 7H 2 O Decomposition

263 26. heating mercury(II) oxide mercury(II) oxide mercury + oxygen 2HgO 2Hg + O 2 Decomposition

264 27. bromine + strontium chloride bromine + strontium chloride No Rxn

265 1. Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of potassium sulfite. 2HCl(aq) +K 2 SO 3 (aq) H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g) +2KCl(aq) 2H + + 2Cl - +2K + + SO 3 2- H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g) +2K + +2Cl - 2H + + SO 3 2- H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g)

266 2. A solution of sodium sulfide is added to a solution of zinc nitrate. Na 2 S(aq) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2NaNO 3 (aq) + ZnS(s) 2Na + + S 2- + Zn NO 3 - 2Na + + 2NO ZnS S 2- + Zn 2+ ZnS

267 3. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of potassium iodide. Cl 2 (g) + 2KI(aq) 2KCl(aq) + I 2 (s) Cl 2 + 2K + + 2I - 2K + + 2Cl - + I 2 Cl 2 + 2I - -> 2Cl - + I 2

268 4. Magnesium metal is burned in nitrogen gas. 3Mg(s) + N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s)

269 5. Solid sodium oxide is added to water. Na 2 O(s) + H 2 O(l) 2NaOH(aq) Na 2 O(s) + H 2 O(l) 2Na + (aq) + 2OH - (aq)


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