Presentation on theme: "Double Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions Also referred to as metathesis reaction The two compounds exchange ions to produce two new compounds. It."— Presentation transcript:
Double Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions Also referred to as metathesis reaction The two compounds exchange ions to produce two new compounds. It is easier to simply remember that the cations (+ ions) exchange anions (- ions). AB + CD CB + AD NOTE: always write the cation first then the anion. Many reactions including precipitation and neutralization use the double displacement mechanism.
pp. 220, 223 Double Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions
Double Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions PREDICT THE PRODUCT & BALANCE 1. MgSO 4 + LiOH ___________ 2. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 CO 3 ____________ 3. HNO 3 + Ba(OH) 2 ___________ Answers are on the next slide.
Double Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions ANSWERS 1. MgSO LiOH Mg(OH) 2 + Li 2 SO 4 2. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 CO 3 PbCO NaNO HNO 3 + Ba(OH) 2 Ba(NO 3 ) H 2 O Exchange cations
PRECIPITATION REACTION A reaction where an insoluble solid is formed during a reaction between two aqueous solutions. (aq) + (aq) (aq) + (s) 2KI (aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 2KNO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) NEUTRALIZATION REACTION A reaction between an acid and a base which results in the production of a salt and water. HA + BOH (metal/nonmetal) + H 2 O HNO 3 (aq) + KOH(aq) KNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) Exchange cations
Table 9-3, p. 252
Fig. 9-13, p. 253
Single Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions One element reacts with a compound to produce a different element and a new compound. A + BC AC + B NOTE: if the element is a metal, it will replace the cation. A + BC C + BA NOTE: if the element is a nonmetal, it will replace the anion. Many reduction-oxidation reactions use the single displacement mechanism.
pp. 218, 220 Single Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions
Fig. 8-15, p. 218
Single Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions PREDICT THE PRODUCT 1. Ca + HCl 2. ZnBr 2 + I 2 3. Cu + AgNO 3 Answers are on the next slide.
Single Displacement (or Replacement) Reactions ANSWERS: 1. Ca + 2 HCl CaCl 2 + H 2 2. ZnBr 2 + I 2 ZnI 2 + Br 2 3. Cu + 2AgNO 3 2Ag + Cu(NO 3 ) 2
Fig. 9-9, p. 245 A reaction occurs when a piece of zinc is dipped into a solution of copper (II) nitrate. Write the conventional (molecular), ionic and net ionic equations. Single-Replacement Redox Reactions
Conventional (Molecular) Equation Zn (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Zn(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + Cu (s) Ionic Equation Zn (s) + Cu +2 (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) Zn +2 (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + Cu (s) Net Ionic Equation Zn (s) + Cu +2 (aq) Zn +2 (aq) + Cu (s) Single-Replacement Redox Reactions
Table 9-2, p. 245
What happens if we place a piece of copper metal into a solution of zinc nitrate? Evidence shows that copper is below zinc on the Activity Series, therefore copper will not replace zinc and no reaction occurs. Cu (s) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2(aq) NR Single-Replacement Redox Reactions
Reduction-Oxidation Reactions A reaction in which electrons are transferred from one species to another. Oxidation means the loss of electrons Reduction means the gain of electrons Rusting is a redox reaction: 4Fe (s) + 3O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 (s) As a reactant Fe has a zero oxidation state but as a product (in Fe 2 O 3 ) iron has a 3+ oxidation state. Three electrons per atom had to be transferred (lost) in order for this to happen. Note that oxygen also changed from a zero oxidation state to a 2- oxidation state. Oxygen needed to gain 2 electrons per atom.
Reduction-Oxidation Reactions Oxidation means the loss of electrons Reduction means the gain of electrons Electrochemistry involves redox Rx. Cu(s) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) 2Ag(s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) The reactant Cu has a zero oxidation state (all elements have a zero oxidation state) but as a product, in Cu(NO 3 ) 2,the copper atom loses two electrons and has a 2+ oxidation state. The other atom which acquired the electrons donated by copper is silver. As a reactant silver has a 1+ oxidation state then by gaining electrons from copper, the ions are turned into elemental silver with a zero oxidation state. The net effect of this reaction has metallic copper being oxidized to copper ions and silver ions being reduced to silver metal The net effect of this reaction has metallic copper being oxidized to copper ions and silver ions being reduced to silver metal.
Fig. 16-2, p. 459
COMBINATION REACTION A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single product. A +B + C ABC CaO(s) + SO 2 (g) CaSO 3 (s)
Fig. 8-11, p. 214 C (s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g)
DECOMPOSITION REACTION A reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more substances, usually requiring a raise in temperature. ABC A + B + C 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl(s) + 3O 2 (g)
Fig. 8-13, p H 2 O (l) 2H 2(g) + O 2(g)
COMBUSTION REACTION A reaction of a substance with oxygen, usually the rapid release of heat produces a flame. CH + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2C 4 H 10 (g) + 13O 2 (g) 8CO 2 (g) + 10H 2 O (g) (hint: balance the Cs first, followed by the H then the Os) Many times in a combustion reaction, heat energy is given off. In chemical terms this is called an exothermic reaction. Thermochemistry is field of chemistry which studies the transfer of heat in a reaction. The thermodynamic equation representing this exothermic reaction is: 2C 4 H 10 (g) + 13O 2 (g) 8CO 2 (g) + 10H 2 O(g) + heat (in Joules)
GAS FORMATION REACTIONS A reaction that produces a gas from reactants not in the gaseous state. 2 HCl (aq) + ZnS (s) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 S (g) Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Many gas formation reactions involve two steps, first the double displacement reaction then the decomposition reaction of an unstable substance. Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl 2 NaCl + H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O Besides carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ) also decomposes into SO 2 and water.
COMMON GAS FORMATION REACTIONS YOU SHOULD REMEMBER NH 4 OH NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 CO 3 CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 SO 3 SO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)
Table 8-3, p. 223
GROUP STUDY PROBLEM # 17a Write the following as balanced chemical equations then classify each reaction. 1. Solid mercuric oxide decomposes at high temperatures to form metallic mercury and oxygen. 2. Aqueous lead(II) nitrate reacts with aqueous magnesium bromide to produce the insoluble salt lead(II)bromide and soluble magnesium nitrate. 3. At room temperature, aqueous ammonium carbonate is added to hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous ammonium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. 4. Hydrochloric acid is poured over tin metal producing hydrogen gas and tin (IV) chloride. 5. The combustion of ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, results in the production of carbon dioxide and water.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 17a Write the following as balanced chemical equations then classify each reaction. 1. Magnesium metal is combined with nitrogen at elevated temperatures to form magnesium nitride powder. 2. An aqueous solution of soluble aluminum nitrate is mixed with aqueous sodium hydroxide to produce insoluble aluminum hydroxide and a sodium nitrate solution. 3. Solid potassium sulfite is added to hydrochloric acid to produce sulfur dioxide, water, and potassium chloride. 4. Acetic acid reacts with calcium hydroxide to produce calcium acetate and water. 5. Lithium metal is dropped in water to produce lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 3 Mg (s) + N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s); combination, redox Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + 3NaOH (aq) Al(OH) 3 (s) + 3NaNO 3 (aq) ; ppt, DD K 2 SO 3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) H 2 SO 3 (aq) + 2KCl (aq) ; DD then H 2 SO 3 (aq) H 2 O (l) + SO 2 (g) ; decomposition overall Rx : K 2 SO 3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) H 2 O (l) + SO 2 (g) + 2KCl (aq) 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq) Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O (l) ; DD, neutralization 2Li (s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2LiOH (aq) + H 2 (g); SD, redox
GROUP STUDY PROBLEM # 17b PREDICT THE PRODUCT THEN WRITE A BALANCED EQUATION FOR EACH REACTIONS. 1. The reaction between lead (II) acetate and ammonium carbonate solutions results in the formation of a white solid. 2. An zinc metal wire is dipped in hydrobromic acid. 3. The decomposition of sulfurous acid. 4. Sodium hydroxide solution is added to sulfuric acid. 5. Solid tin(II) sulfide is added to hydroiodic acid.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS # 17b PREDICT THE PRODUCT THEN WRITE A BALANCED EQUATION FOR EACH REACTIONS. 1. Cadmium (II) iodide solution is added to aqueous potassium phosphate. 2. Magnesium hydroxide solution is mixed with phosphoric acid. 3. The decomposition of carbonic acid. 4. The combustion of methanol, CH 3 OH. 5. Solid cadmium reacts with a copper(II) sulfate solution. 3 CdI 2 (aq) + 2 K 3 PO 4 (aq) Cd 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) + 6 KI (aq) 3 Mg(OH) 2 (aq) + 2 H 3 PO 4 (aq) Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (aq) + 6 H 2 O (l) H 2 CO 3 (aq) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) 2 CH 3 OH (l) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 CO 2 (g) + 4 H 2 O (l) Cd (s) + CuSO 4 (aq) Cu (s) + CdSO 4 (aq)