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Chemical Reactions. Types of Reactions There are five types of chemical reactions we will talk about: 1. 1. Synthesis reactions 2. 2. _____________ reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Reactions. Types of Reactions There are five types of chemical reactions we will talk about: 1. 1. Synthesis reactions 2. 2. _____________ reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Reactions

2 Types of Reactions There are five types of chemical reactions we will talk about: Synthesis reactions _____________ reactions Single displacement reactions ________________ reactions Combustion reactions You need to be able to identify the type of reaction and predict the product(s)

3 Steps to Writing Reactions Some steps for doing reactions Identify the type of reaction Predict the product(s) using the type of reaction as a model Balance it Don’t forget about the diatomic elements! (HOFBrINCl) For example, Oxygen is O 2 as an element. In a compound, it can’t be a diatomic element because it’s not an element anymore, it’s a compound!

4 1. Synthesis reactions Synthesis reactions occur when two substances (generally elements) combine and form a compound. (Sometimes these are called combination or addition reactions.) reactant + reactant  1 product Basically: A + B  AB Example: 2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O Example: C + O 2  CO 2

5 Synthesis Reactions Here is another example of a synthesis reaction

6 Practice Predict the products. Write and balance the following synthesis reaction equations. Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas Na (s) + Cl 2(g)  Solid Magnesium reacts with fluorine gas Mg (s) + F 2(g)  Aluminum metal reacts with fluorine gas Al (s) + F 2(g) 

7 2. Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into the elements or in a few to simpler compounds 1 Reactant  Product + Product In general: AB  A + B Example: 2 H 2 O  2H 2 + O 2 Example: 2 HgO  2Hg + O 2

8 Decomposition Reactions Another view of a decomposition reaction:

9 Decomposition Exceptions Carbonates (CO 3 2- ) decompose to carbon dioxide and a metal oxide Example: CaCO 3  CO 2 + CaO Metallic hydroxides decompose into metallic oxides and water Example Ca(OH) 2  CaO + H 2 O Some acids decompose into nonmetallic oxides and water Example H 2 SO 4  H 2 O + SO 3 Chlorates (ClO 3 - ) decompose to oxygen gas and a metal chloride Example: 2 Al(ClO 3 ) 3  2 AlCl O 2

10 Practice Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations: Solid Lead (IV) oxide decomposes PbO 2(s)  Aluminum nitride decomposes AlN (s) 

11 Practice Identify the type of reaction for each of the following synthesis or decomposition reactions, and write the balanced equation: N 2(g) + O 2(g)  BaCO 3(s)  Co (s) + S (s)  NI 3(s)  (make Co be +3) Nitrogen monoxide

12 3. Single Replacement Reactions Single Replacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound. A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-). element + compound  compound + element A + BC  AC + B (if A is a metal) OR A + BC  BA + C (if A is a nonmetal) (remember the cation always goes first!)

13 Single Replacement Reactions Another view:

14 Single Replacement Reactions Write and balance the following single replacement reaction equation: Zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid Zn (s) + HCl (aq)  ZnCl 2 + H 2(g) Note: Zinc replaces the hydrogen ion in the reaction 2

15 Single Replacement Reactions Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas NaCl (s) + F 2(g)  NaF (s) + Cl 2(g) Note that fluorine replaces chlorine in the compound Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate Al (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq)  22

16 4. Double Replacement Reactions Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal replaces a metal in a compound and a nonmetal replaces a nonmetal in a compound Compound + compound  product + product AB + CD  AD + CB

17 Double Replacement Reactions Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go together Example: AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (s)  AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq) Another example: K 2 SO 4(aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq)  KNO 3(aq) + BaSO 4(s) 2

18 Practice Predict the products. Balance the equation HCl (aq) + AgNO 3(aq)  CaCl 2(aq) + Na 3 PO 4(aq)  Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + BaCl 2(aq)  FeCl 3(aq) + NaOH (aq)  H 2 SO 4(aq) + NaOH (aq)  KOH (aq) + CuSO 4(aq) 

19 5. Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas. This is also called burning!!! In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the “fire triangle”: 1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon) 2) Oxygen to burn it with 3) Something to ignite the reaction (spark)

20 Combustion Reactions In general: C x H y + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water (complete) or carbon monoxide and water (incomplete) Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (octane, as in gasoline, is C 8 H 18 )

21 Combustion Example C 5 H 12 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O Write the products and balance the following combustion reaction: C 10 H 22 + O 2  (complete) 5 6 8

22 Mixed Practice State the type, predict the products, and balance the following reactions: BaCl 2 + H 2 SO 4  C 6 H 12 + O 2  (incomplete) Zn + CuSO 4  Cs + Br 2  FeCO 3 


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