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Unit 7 Chemical Reactions Types of Reactions. Type of Reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five general types Synthesis (also called combination.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Chemical Reactions Types of Reactions. Type of Reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five general types Synthesis (also called combination."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7 Chemical Reactions Types of Reactions

2 Type of Reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five general types Synthesis (also called combination or addition) Decomposition Single Replacement (also called single displacement) Double Replacement(also called double displacement) Combustion

3 Synthesis (Combination) Two or more elements or simple compounds combine to form (synthesize) one product A + B AB 2Mg + O 2 2MgO 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl SO 3 + H 2 OH 2 SO 4 When two elements combine in synthesis, the product is a compound made of their respective ions.

4 Combination (Synthesis) YouTube - Reaction of Sodium & Chlorine (with subtitles) YouTube - Reaction of Sodium & Chlorine (with subtitles)

5 Synthesis (practice) Predict the products. Write and balance the following synthesis reaction equations. Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas Na (s) + Cl 2(g) Solid Magnesium reacts with fluorine gas Mg (s) + F 2(g) Aluminum metal reacts with fluorine gas Al (s) + F 2(g)

6 Combination (Synthesis) Practice Predict the products. Write and balance the following synthesis reaction equations. Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas 2 Na (s) + Cl 2(g) 2 NaCl Solid Magnesium reacts with fluorine gas Mg (s) + F 2(g) MgF 2 Aluminum metal reacts with fluorine gas 2Al (s) + 3 F 2(g) 2AlF 3

7 Decomposition One substance is broken down (split) into two or more simpler substances. ABA + B 2HgO2Hg + O 2 2KClO 3 2KCl + 3 O 2 a compound made of two elements, decomposes into those elements.

8 Decomposition YouTube - ammonium dichromate volcano

9 Decomposition Practice Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations: Solid Lead (IV) oxide decomposes PbO 2(s) Aluminum nitride decomposes AlN (s)

10 Decomposition Practice Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations: Solid Lead (IV) oxide decomposes PbO 2 (s) Pb (s) + O 2 (g) Aluminum nitride decomposes 2AlN (s) 2 Al (s) + N 2 (g)

11 Learning Check 1 Classify the following reactions as 1) combination or 2) decomposition: ___A. H 2 + Br 2 2HBr ___B. Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Al 2 O 3 + 3CO 2 ___C. 4 Al + 3C Al 4 C 3

12 Solution 1 Classify the following reactions as 1) combination or 2) decomposition: _1_A. H 2 + Br 2 2HBr _2_B. Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Al 2 O 3 + 3CO 2 _1_C. 4 Al + 3C Al 4 C 3

13 Single Replacement (Displacement) One element takes the place of an element in a reacting compound. A + BC AC + B Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 Fe + CuSO 4 FeSO 4 +Cu A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-). Whether one metal will displace another metal from a compound depends on the relative reactivity's of the two metals.

14 Single Replacement (Displacement) Practice YouTube - Thermite reaction

15 Single Replacement Displacement) The activity series of metals lists metals in order of decreasing reactivity. A metal will replace any metal listed below. Lithium Potassium Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Iron Lead Hydrogen Copper Mercury silver

16 Single Replacement (Displacement) Practice Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas NaCl (s) + F 2(g) Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate Al (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq)

17 Single Replacement (Displacement) Practice Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas 2NaCl (s) + F 2(g) 2 NaF (s) + Cl 2(g) Note that fluorine (nonmetal) replaces chlorine (nonmetal) in the compound Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate 2 Al (s) + 3Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq) 3Cu(s) + 2 Al(NO 3 ) 3

18 Double Replacement (Displacement) Two elements in reactants take the place of each other AB + CD AD + CB AgNO 3 + NaClAgCl + NaNO 3 ZnS + 2HCl ZnCl 2 +H 2 S

19 Double Replacement (Displacement) YouTube - Double Replacement Reactions

20 Think about it like foiling in algebra, first and last ions go together ; inside ions go together Example: AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (s) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq) Another example: K 2 SO 4(aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq) KNO 3(aq) + BaSO 4(s)

21 Classify the following reactions as 1) single replacement 2) double replacement __A. 2Al + 3H 2 SO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3H 2 __B. Na 2 SO 4 + 2AgNO 3 Ag 2 SO 4 + 2NaNO 3 __C. 3C + Fe 2 O 3 2Fe + 3CO

22 Classify the following reactions as 1) single replacement 2) double replacement 1_A. 2Al + 3H 2 SO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3H 2 2_B. Na 2 SO 4 + 2AgNO 3 Ag 2 SO 4 + 2NaNO 3 1_C. 3C + Fe 2 O 3 2Fe + 3CO

23 Double Replacement Practice Predict the products. Balance the equation 1. HCl (aq) + AgNO 3(aq) 2. CaCl 2(aq) + Na 3 PO 4(aq)

24 Double Replacement Practice Predict the products. Balance the equation 1. HCl (aq) + AgNO 3(aq) HNO 3 + AgCl 2. CaCl 2(aq) + Na 3 PO 4(aq) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + NaCl

25 Combustion A reaction in which a hydrocarbon (compound made up of H and C) reacts with oxygen and the products are carbon dioxide and water CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O

26 Combustion Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas. This is also called burning!!! In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the fire triangle: 1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon) 2) Oxygen to burn it with 3) Something to ignite the reaction (spark)

27 Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning does cause some by- products like carbon monoxide)

28 Combustion Practice Complete and Balance the combustion equation ___C 5 H 12 + ___O 2

29 Combustion Practice Balance the combustion equation __C 5 H 12 + _8_O 2 5CO 2 + _6H 2 O

30 Unit 8 Chemical Reactions Types of Reactions


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