7 Examples of Synthesis Reactions 1. Reactions of metals with oxygen.Magnesium(s) + Oxygen(g)2 Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(S)Magnesium Oxide2. Reactions of metals with halogens.2 Al(s) + 3 Br2(l) AlBr3(S)Aluminum BromideAluminum(s) + Bromine(l)3. Reactions of metals with sulfur.Silver(s) + Sulfur(s)Ag(s) + S(s) Ag2S(S)Silver Sulfide
8 Decomposition A X A + X KClO3(s) KCl(s) + O2(g) A single compound undergoes a reaction a produces two or more substances.A X A + XKClO3(s) KCl(s) + O2(g)Potassium Chlorate is decomposed by heating forming potassium chloride and oxygen gas.
11 Examples of Decomposition Reactions 1. Decomposition of Binary Compounds.Magnesium Oxide(s)2 MgO(s) Mg(s) + O2(g)Magnesium Oxygen2. Decomposition of Metal Carbonates.Decomposes into two separate elements.Aluminum Carbonate(s)Al2(CO3)3(S) Al2O3(s) + 3 CO2(g)Aluminum Oxide + Carbon DioxideDecomposes into metal oxide and CO2(g)3. Decomposition of Metal Hydroxides (Bases)Magnesium Hydroxide(s)Mg(OH)2(s) MgO(S) H2O(g)Magnesium Oxide(s) +Water Vapor(g)Decomposes into metal oxide (basic anhydride) and H2O
12 Examples of Decomposition Reactions 4. Decomposition of Metal Chlorates.Sodium Chlorate(s)2 NaClO3(s) NaCl(s) + 3 O2(g)sodium chloride + OxygenDecomposes to produce metal chloride and oxygen gas.5. Decomposition of Ternary Acids.Sulfuric Acid(l)H2SO4(l) SO3(g) H2O(l)Sulfur Trioxide + WaterDecomposes to produce Nonmetal Oxide (Acidic Anhydride) and water.Since the nonmetals in the ternary acid usually have multiple charges you must work backwards to find its charge.Use this charge to form the acidic anhydride (nonmetal oxide) formula.-2+63(-2)2(+1)+2+ X +4(-2)SO3SO-8= +6H2SO4
13 Lets try some examples… Na(s) O2(g)42Na2O(s)SYNTHESISMgCO3(S)MgO(s) + CO2(g)DecompositionFe(III)(s) Br2(l)232SYNTHESISFeBr3(s)What’s wrong with the equation below?2H3PO4(l) PO2(g) + 3 H2O(l)2H3PO4(l) P2O5(g) + 3 H2O(l)
15 Single Replacement or Single Displacement One element displaces another element when higher on the activity chart.A BX B AXBX Y B YXCopper penny added to silver nitrate produces silver metal and blue aqueous copper (II) nitrate.Cu(s) + AgNO3(aq) Ag(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)
17 Examples of Single Displacement Reactions 1. Replacement of metal by another metal.Copper(s) + Silver Nitrate(aq)Cu(II)(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Ag(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)Silver + Copper (II) Nitrate2. Replacement of hydrogen in water by a metal.Zinc(s) + Water(l)Zn(s) + 2 HOH(l) Zn(OH)2(aq) H2(g)Zinc Hydroxide + Hydrogen gas3. Replacement of hydrogen in an acid by a metal.Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(l)Mg(s) HCl(l) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
18 Examples of Single Displacement Reactions 4. Replacement of halogens by another halogen.Chlorine(g) + Sodium Bromide(s)Cl2(g) + 2 NaBr(s) Br2(l) + 2 NaCl(s)Bromine + Sodium Chloride
19 Activity SeriesLithiumPotassiumCalciumSodiumMagnesiumAluminumZincChromiumIronNickelLeadHydrogenBismuthCopperMercurySilverPlatinumGold1. Metals can displace other metals provided that they are above the metal they are trying to displace.2. Metals above hydrogen can displace hydrogen from an acid.3. Metals from sodium upward can replace hydrogen from water.
20 Activity SeriesFluorineChlorineBromineIodine1. Halogens can replace other halogens provided they are higher than the halogen they are trying to replace.2 NaCl(s) + F2(g) NaF(s) + Cl2(g)NaF(s) + Cl2(g)No Reaction
21 Double Replacement or Double Displacement The ions of two compounds switch places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds.AY BX BY AXOne of the products is usually an insoluble gas that bubbles out of the solution, a precipitate, or a molecular compound, usually water.Lead (II) Nitrate added to Potassium Iodide produces a Lead (II) Iodide ppt. and aqueous Potassium Nitrate solution.Pb(NO3)2(aq) + KI(aq) PbI2(s) + KNO3(aq)
24 Examples of Double Displacement Reactions 1. Copper (II)Sulfate(aq) + Lead (II) Nitrate(aq)1. CuSO4( (II)aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbSO4(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)Lead (II) Sulfate + Copper (II) NitratePrecipitate2. Zn(OH)2(aq) +2 NaBr(aq) ZnBr2(aq) NaOH(aq)Zinc Bromide + Sodium Hydroxide2. Zinc Hydroxide(aq) + Sodium Bromide(aq)
25 Combustion Reactions P4(s) + 5 O2(g) P4O10(s) A substance combines with oxygen producing a large amount of energy in the form of heat or light.Reactive elements combine with oxygen.P4(s) O2(g) P4O10(s)This is also a synthesis reaction.The burning of organic materials in general.C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l) + Energy
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