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Chemical Reactions – Part II Five Types of Chemical Reactions

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1 Chemical Reactions – Part II Five Types of Chemical Reactions
Unit 7: Stoichiometry - Part IV Mrs. Callender

2 Lesson Essential Question
What are the five general types of chemical reactions?

3 Five Basic Reaction Types

4 Combination or Synthesis
Two or more substances combine to form a new compound. A X AX Iron Wool added to Sulfur with heat yields Iron (II) Sulfide. Fe(s) + S(s) FeS(s)

5 Iron + Sulfur

6 Singing Test Tube

7 Examples of Synthesis Reactions
1. Reactions of metals with oxygen. Magnesium(s) + Oxygen(g) 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(S) Magnesium Oxide 2. Reactions of metals with halogens. 2 Al(s) + 3 Br2(l) AlBr3(S) Aluminum Bromide Aluminum(s) + Bromine(l) 3. Reactions of metals with sulfur. Silver(s) + Sulfur(s) Ag(s) + S(s) Ag2S(S) Silver Sulfide

8 Decomposition A X A + X KClO3(s) KCl(s) + O2(g)
A single compound undergoes a reaction a produces two or more substances. A X A + X KClO3(s) KCl(s) + O2(g) Potassium Chlorate is decomposed by heating forming potassium chloride and oxygen gas.

9 Decomposition of Sugar

10 Exploding Gummy Bear

11 Examples of Decomposition Reactions
1. Decomposition of Binary Compounds. Magnesium Oxide(s) 2 MgO(s) Mg(s) + O2(g) Magnesium Oxygen 2. Decomposition of Metal Carbonates. Decomposes into two separate elements. Aluminum Carbonate(s) Al2(CO3)3(S) Al2O3(s) + 3 CO2(g) Aluminum Oxide + Carbon Dioxide Decomposes into metal oxide and CO2(g) 3. Decomposition of Metal Hydroxides (Bases) Magnesium Hydroxide(s) Mg(OH)2(s) MgO(S) H2O(g) Magnesium Oxide(s) +Water Vapor(g) Decomposes into metal oxide (basic anhydride) and H2O

12 Examples of Decomposition Reactions
4. Decomposition of Metal Chlorates. Sodium Chlorate(s) 2 NaClO3(s) NaCl(s) + 3 O2(g) sodium chloride + Oxygen Decomposes to produce metal chloride and oxygen gas. 5. Decomposition of Ternary Acids. Sulfuric Acid(l) H2SO4(l) SO3(g) H2O(l) Sulfur Trioxide + Water Decomposes to produce Nonmetal Oxide (Acidic Anhydride) and water. Since the nonmetals in the ternary acid usually have multiple charges you must work backwards to find its charge. Use this charge to form the acidic anhydride (nonmetal oxide) formula. -2 +6 3(-2) 2(+1) +2 + X + 4(-2) SO3 SO -8 = +6 H2SO4

13 Lets try some examples…
Na(s) O2(g) 4 2 Na2O(s) SYNTHESIS MgCO3(S) MgO(s) + CO2(g) Decomposition Fe(III)(s) Br2(l) 2 3 2 SYNTHESIS FeBr3(s) What’s wrong with the equation below? 2H3PO4(l) PO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) 2H3PO4(l) P2O5(g) + 3 H2O(l)

14 Part II of Reactions

15 Single Replacement or Single Displacement
One element displaces another element when higher on the activity chart. A BX B AX BX Y B YX Copper penny added to silver nitrate produces silver metal and blue aqueous copper (II) nitrate. Cu(s) + AgNO3(aq) Ag(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)

16 How to Make Silver

17 Examples of Single Displacement Reactions
1. Replacement of metal by another metal. Copper(s) + Silver Nitrate(aq) Cu(II)(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Ag(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) Silver + Copper (II) Nitrate 2. Replacement of hydrogen in water by a metal. Zinc(s) + Water(l) Zn(s) + 2 HOH(l) Zn(OH)2(aq) H2(g) Zinc Hydroxide + Hydrogen gas 3. Replacement of hydrogen in an acid by a metal. Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(l) Mg(s) HCl(l) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

18 Examples of Single Displacement Reactions
4. Replacement of halogens by another halogen. Chlorine(g) + Sodium Bromide(s) Cl2(g) + 2 NaBr(s) Br2(l) + 2 NaCl(s) Bromine + Sodium Chloride

19 Activity Series Lithium Potassium Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Chromium Iron Nickel Lead Hydrogen Bismuth Copper Mercury Silver Platinum Gold 1. Metals can displace other metals provided that they are above the metal they are trying to displace. 2. Metals above hydrogen can displace hydrogen from an acid. 3. Metals from sodium upward can replace hydrogen from water.

20 Activity Series Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine 1. Halogens can replace other halogens provided they are higher than the halogen they are trying to replace. 2 NaCl(s) + F2(g) NaF(s) + Cl2(g) NaF(s) + Cl2(g) No Reaction

21 Double Replacement or Double Displacement
The ions of two compounds switch places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds. AY BX BY AX One of the products is usually an insoluble gas that bubbles out of the solution, a precipitate, or a molecular compound, usually water. Lead (II) Nitrate added to Potassium Iodide produces a Lead (II) Iodide ppt. and aqueous Potassium Nitrate solution. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + KI(aq) PbI2(s) + KNO3(aq)

22 Double Displacement Reaction

23 Golden Rain

24 Examples of Double Displacement Reactions
1. Copper (II)Sulfate(aq) + Lead (II) Nitrate(aq) 1. CuSO4( (II)aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbSO4(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) Lead (II) Sulfate + Copper (II) Nitrate Precipitate 2. Zn(OH)2(aq) +2 NaBr(aq) ZnBr2(aq) NaOH(aq) Zinc Bromide + Sodium Hydroxide 2. Zinc Hydroxide(aq) + Sodium Bromide(aq)

25 Combustion Reactions P4(s) + 5 O2(g) P4O10(s)
A substance combines with oxygen producing a large amount of energy in the form of heat or light. Reactive elements combine with oxygen. P4(s) O2(g) P4O10(s) This is also a synthesis reaction. The burning of organic materials in general. C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l) + Energy

26 Combustion of Ethanol

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