3Chemical ReactionsA chemical reaction is a process in which the physical and chemical properties of the original substances change as new substances with different chemical and physical properties are formed.Remember: a new substance is always formed.The properties and energies of the substances always change when a chemical reaction takes place.
4Characteristics A. There are always two kinds of substances: 1. Reactant - substance that enters into a chemical rxn2. Product - substance produced by a chemical rxn.Reactants Products
5CharacteristicsB. There is always a change in energy in a chemical rxn.Exothermic - energy is given off. (Something that is burning or gives off light)Endothermic - energy is absorbed. (Photosynthesis or test tube gets colder)
6Characteristics C. There is always activation energy Activation energy is the energy needed to form short-lived, highly energetic, extremely unstable, intermediate molecules that are rearranged to form products in the chemical rxn.
7Characteristics D. Bonding Capacity In order for a chemical rxn to occur, the reactants must have the ability to combine with substances to form products. Must follow the rules for bonding. Remember: An atom bonds with another atom to complete its outermost energy level.
8Characteristics E. Conservation of Mass Atoms can be neither created nor destroyed. The number of reactant atoms must equal the number of product atoms. This is important when balancing chemical equations.
9BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Chemical reactions involve a rearrangement of atoms. Chemical equations are expressions in symbols and formulas that represent a chemical reaction.EXAMPLE:Magnesium + Oxygen yields Magnesium Oxide + energy(word equation)Mg O2 MgO + heat(skeleton equation)2 Mg O2 2 MgO + heat(balanced equation)A balanced chemical equation has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.
10RULES TO FOLLOW Change coefficients only. Never change a symbol, formula, or subscript.Place coefficients in front of the entire chemical formula.
12STEPS TO BALANCING AN EQUATION Write the chemical equation for the reaction.Verify that the chemical symbols and formulas are correct.Count the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the arrow.If the atom numbers are equal, then the equation is balanced.Balance the equation using coefficients. A coefficient is a whole number placed in front of a chemical formula to indicate the number of molecules present. Balance metals, then nonmetals, then hydrogen, then oxygenLook for the least common multiple (LCM).Check your work by recounting the number of atoms on each side of the arrow.
13BALANCING EQUATIONS (Part One) 1. ______ Al + ______ O2 ______Al2O3Al - O Al O -
14DO NOW The Balancing Equations II handout is homework. Due tomorrow. You are not required to show your work of counting atoms, but if you get the problem wrong and have not shown your work, I cannot give partial credit.
15Word EquationsWrite the correct formulas for each of the chemicals named. Determine which are the reactant(s) and which are the product(s).Write out the chemical equation for the reaction.Count the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the arrow.Balance the equation using coefficientsCheck your work by recounting the number of atoms on each side of the arrow.
16Helpful Hints Symbols you should know: means “yields” (s) means solid Ag (s)(g) means gas H2 (g)(l) means liquid H2O (l)(aq) means aqueous NaCl (aq)dissolved in water
17Helpful Hints All metals are singular Non-noble gases are diatomic – travel in pairs. The diatomic gases are N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, H2
18Practice 1. copper (II) hydroxide yields copper (II) oxide and water. 2. ammonia gas and hydrochloric acid yields ammonium chloride.
19Practice3. potassium metal and water yields potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.4. propane (C3H8) and oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water.
20Types of Chemical Reactions There are five basic types of chemical reactions.Not all reactions will take these five forms.Other classes of reactions will be considered later.net ionicoxidation-reductionneutralization
21SYNTHESIS Reaction sometimes called Combination two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance.What to look for: one productEX. 2 Mg (s) O2 (g) 2 MgO (s)4 Fe (s) O2 (g) 2 Fe2O3 (s)metal corrosion due to oxidation
25COMBUSTION reaction Also called an oxidation reaction when compounds react with oxygen.What to look for: a compound and oxygen (reactants) which should yield two compounds.EX. Hydrocarbon + O2 water + carbon dioxideCH4 (g) O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O (g)2 C4H10 (g) O2 (g) 8 CO2 (g) H2O (g)
26COMBUSTION reactionAccording to your book, the examples below are called combustion reactions. We will call them SYNTHESIS.Metal + oxygen gas metal oxide Fe(s) O2 (g) 2 Fe2O3 (s)Nonmetal + oxygen gas nonmetal oxide2 H2 (g) O2 (g) 2 H2O (l)
28SINGLE REPLACEMENT Rxn Also called single displacement reactionone element replaces another element in a compound.Use the activity series of metals to determine if the metal can be replaced or not.What to look for: uncombined elements on both sides of the arrow
32SINGLE REPLACEMENTA. An active metal will displace the metallic ion in a compound of a less active metal. Need to look at activity series.EX. Cu (s) AgNO3 (aq) Cu(NO3) 2 (aq) + Ag (s)B. Some active metals (all alkali metals and some alkaline earth metals) will react with water to produce a metallic hydroxide and hydrogen gas.EX. 2 Na (s) H2O (l) 2 NaOH (aq) H2 (g)
33SINGLE REPLACEMENTC. Some active metals, such as Al, Zn, and Fe, will displace the hydrogen in acids to give a salt and hydrogen gas.EX. Mg (s) HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) H2 (g)D. Halogens (active nonmetals) will displace less active halogens. Fluorine is the most reactive, iodine is the least.EX. Cl2 (g) NaBr (aq) 2NaCl (aq) Br2 (g)
35DOUBLE REPLACEMENT Rxn Also called double displacement reactiondifferent atoms in two different compounds replace each other.two compounds react to form two new compounds – either a gas, precipitate, or waterWhat to look for: two compounds on each sideEx. HCl (aq) NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) H2O (l)NaCl (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) 2 NaNO3 (aq) + AgCl (s)
40AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS A lot of reactions take place in water. Whenever something is dissolved in water, it is called AQUEOUS.There are a variety of solutes that can be dissolved in water.Most chemical reactions involving aqueous solutions end up with a precipitate, gas, or water as one of the products.In order to determine if a reaction will produce a precipitate, you must be familiar with the solubility rules.
41SOLUBILITY RULESAll common salts of the group 1A elements and ammonium are soluble.All common acetates and nitrates are soluble.All binary compounds of group 7A elements (other than F) with metals are soluble except those of silver, mercury (I), and lead.All sulfates are soluble except those of barium, strontium, lead, calcium, silver, and mercury (I)Except for those in rule 1, carbonates, hydroxides, oxides, sulfides, and phosphates are insoluble.See a more complete table, pages 920
42DETERMINING SOLUBILITY - Use your solubility rules to determine whether or not a precipitate forms when the solutions listed below are mixed.- Write the formulas for the PRODUCTS.In the last blank, write the formula for the precipitate if one is formed, or write NP if no precipitate is formed.Potential Products Solid Formula/NP1. NaBr + AgNO3 ________________ _______2. Ca(C2H3O2)2 + FeCl3 ________________ _______3. H2SO4 + Hg2(NO3)2 ________________ _______
43NET IONIC EQUATIONSA chemical equation that involves compounds dissolved in water is written differently than a balanced chemical equation. It is called a NET IONIC EQUATION.This is an equation that shows all the soluble ionic solutions as ions.Original reaction:Cu(NO3) NaOH Cu(OH)2 (s) NaNO3Reaction with ions:Cu NO Na OH-1 Cu(OH)2 (s) Na NO (all are aqueous)
44NET IONIC EQUATIONSThere are ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution before the reaction and after.These ions are called SPECTATOR IONS. They do not participate. (Na+1 and NO3-1 in the above example).A net ionic equation includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in an aqueous solution.Write only those ions that take part in the reaction.Reaction with ions: Cu NO Na OH-1 Cu(OH)2 (s) Na NO3-1Net ionic reaction: Cu+2 (aq) OH-1 (aq) Cu(OH)2 (s)
45NET IONIC EQUATIONSBinary acids: Strong - HCl, HBr, HI - Change into ions. All others are weak (including HCN) and written in molecular form.Ternary acids: Strong - the number of oxygen atoms exceeds the number of hydrogen atoms by at least two - change into ions. All organic carboxylic acids are weak (acetic).Polyprotic acids: (These acids contain more than one ionizable hydrogen.) The second ionization and any ones that follow are weak. These acids lose one H+ at a time. Example: H2SO4
46NET IONIC EQUATIONSBases: Strong - hydroxides of group (IA) and (IIA) elements (exception: beryllium) – change into ions. All others are weak.Salts: Written in ionic form if soluble and molecular form if insoluble. See solubility rules, page 920.Oxides: Always written in molecular form. (ex. BaO, H2O)Gases: Always written in molecular form. (Ex. H2, Cl2)
47NET IONIC EQUATIONS So there basically are four categories. When you look at an equation, you need to determine if the formula is:Molecular (two nonmetals bonded together)Ionic (metal + nonmetals; contains polyatomic ions)Acid (starts with an H; not H2O or H2O2)Base (some hydroxides)
51PREDICTING PRODUCTSOne of the five sections on the AP test is on equationsWe will learn to predict the products of basic equations only.You will learn much more in AP.
52DECOMPOSITION will have one reactant and multiple products 1. A compound may break down to form two elements.NaCl 2. A compound make break down to produce an element and a compound.H2O2 3. A compound may break down to produce two compounds. MgCO3
53SYNTHESIS will have multiple reactants and one product 1. Group IA or IIA metals combine with a nonmetal to make a salt Li N2 2. Two nonmetals combine to form a molecular compound. P Cl2 3. Two compounds combine to form a single compound.SO2 + CaO
54SINGLE REPLACEMENT one element displaces another in a compound MUST USE ACTIVITY SERIES1. Active metals replace less active metals or hydrogen from their compounds in an aqueous solution. Use an activity series to determine if it will replace something in the compound.Mg (s) + FeCl3(aq) 2. Active nonmetals replace less active nonmetals from their compounds in an aqueous solution. Cl2(q) + KI(aq)
55DOUBLE REPLACEMENTTwo compounds react to form two new compounds; all double replacement reactions must have a driving force that removes a pair of ions from solution.MUST USE THE SOLUBILITY RULES1. Formation of a precipitate – a precipitate is an insoluble substance formed by the reaction of two aqueous substances. Two ions bond together so tightly that water cannot pull them apart. Know the solubility rules.KI (aq) + Pb (NO3)2 (aq)
56DOUBLE REPLACEMENT2. Formation of a gas – gases may form directly in a double replacement reaction or can form from the decomposition of a product such as carbonic acid.HCl(aq) + K2CO3(aq) 3. Formation of a Molecular Substance – when a molecular substance such as water is formed, ions are removed from solution to form a molecular substance and the reaction “works”.LiOH(aq) + HBr(aq)
57COMBUSTIONhydrocarbons combine with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor.CH4 (g) + O2 (g)