Presentation on theme: "Reform Movements Crusade for individual improvement"— Presentation transcript:
1Reform Movements 1800-1850 Crusade for individual improvement Women prominent in reform movementsTurn to government for change
2Religion Second Great Awakening begin in the West in 1800 Baptists, Presbyterians and Methodists all sent clergymen west1821 Charles G Finney became “father of modern revivalism” in New York—preached fear of damnation and New York becomes know as the “burned over district”Peter Cartwright –circuit preacher—camp meetings-10,000 to 25,000 were the largest
3New Religious GroupsMormons—founded by Joseph Smith in Western New York in 1830Originally known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsThey had to flee persecution in OhioMissouri and Illinois –Smith wasMurdered in Illinois
4Brigham YoungYoung become the leader and leads the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah
5Salt Lake ValleyThrough the church, Young directed political decision making, economic development, cultural affairs, law enforcement and education.He financed wagon trains in order to promote emigration.In 1851 Utah became a territory and Young became governor1852 –announcement that polygamy was a basic tenet of the churchBuchanan’s Mormon War—also known as Buchanan’s Blunder--war in name only
6Shakers Largest and most permanent of the utopian experiments United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing,Largest and most permanent of the utopian experimentsFounded by Ann Lee—in an off shoot of the Quakers
8The Last Ones StandingOnly four Shakers are left in the world, all living in southern Maine. But if they can't attract converts to their celibate lifestyle and this really is the end for them, they have a plan to ensure that their legacy lives on forever. 2006
9Shaker Work Hymn'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight.When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
10Other Utopian GroupsNew Harmony 1825-Robert Owen financial disagreements. Because they lacked the strong central belief which served to unite other utopian groups, the members of the community were lacking the commitment to carry out the mission that Owen envisioned. New Harmony dissolved in less than three yearsOneida-John Humphrey Noyes-flatware-complex marriage ideasBrook Farm-George Riley—rejected materialism—members included Emerson, Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller
12The Hive Home to the Transcendentalists 1841-1847 A bad fire and heavy debts forced them to end experiment.
13TemperanceConsumption of alcohol was very prevalent in the early 19th centuryTemperance movement had a strong religious basis—selling of alcohol was seen as violation of the SabbathIt was seen as a destroyer of familiesTen Nights in a Barroom (1853) by Timothy Say Arthur dramatized the evils of drinkingPopular song “Father, dear father come home with me now”
14More TemperanceThe American Society for the Promotion of Temperance (1826) pledge of abstinenceChildren enlisted in the Cold Water ArmyMaine Laws prohibited the sale and manufacture of liquor—promoted by Neal Dow “Father of Prohibition
15Education Compulsory education in every state by 1860 Horace Mann worked toward reform in education in MassachusettsAs Sec of State Board of Education he pushed for: teacher training institutions,increased salaries, founded 50 new high schools,month school yearOther states followed
16More EducationNoah Webster’s Spellers and grammar books were widely usedWilliam Holmes McGuffey readers that contained lessons of morality—most popular textbooks in the United States
17Women’s Rights No Property Rights—little education Catherine Beecher established academies for young women: Treatise on DomesticEconomy -became the standard for housekeeping and child-rearing
18More Women’s HistoryOberlin College in Ohio-1833-first college to admit womenMount Holyoke in Massachusetts first women’s college with a curriculum comparable to those of men’s schoolVassar opened in 1865
19Grimke SistersFought for abolition and women’s rights
20More Sisters Goal:To Strengthen the Legal Position of Women Daughters of a prominent South Carolina plantation ownerAngelina Grimke was the first woman to address a legislative body in the United StatesThe Grimke sisters were the first women to speak to audiences of both women and menAngelina “it is a woman’s right to have a voice in all laws and regulations by which she is governed, whether in church or state”Sarah “Letters on the Condition of Women and Equality of the Sexes”
21Seneca Falls Convention Major meeting of the women crusade in 1848 led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
22More Seneca Falls 250 met and issued the: Declarations of Rights and SentimentsDemands-control of earnings-guardianship of children-equal education –right to easier divorces—the ballot.Soon Stanton met Susan B, Anthony—worked for women’s rights.
23More Women’s Rights1849-Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery-Underground railroad1850 Amelia Jenks Bloomer launches the dress reform movement with a costume that bears her name
24Abolitionism First founded in 1776 by Quakers American Colonization Society founded in 1816—emancipated and settle the former slaves in Monrovia, Liberia—not all that successful—only about 12,00 leftElijah Lovejoy murdered in Illinois
25William Lloyd Garrison Founded and published The Liberator—anti-slavery newspaper for 35 years.His outspoken views caused for be imprisoned for libelThe State of Georgia offered a reward of $5,000 dollars for his arrest.He received numerous death threats
26Garrison He demanded immediate and uncompensated emancipation He founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society in 1832 and a year later the American Anti-Slavery SocietyQuote:”On this subject, I do not wish to think, to speak, or write with moderation, I will not retreat a single inch—And I will be head.”
28Theodore WeldWeld worked for gradual emancipation—used Oberlin College as a training groundHe was a MinsterBy 1840—2000 local antislavery societiesOther famous name Frederick DouglasNorth StarHarriet Tubman- Underground Railroad
29Sojourner TruthIn December of 1851, former slave Sojourner Truth delivered he “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech before a spellbound audience at a women’s rights convention in Akron, Ohio.
30Sojourner Truth (1797-1883): Ain't I A Woman Sojourner Truth ( ): Ain't I A Woman? Delivered 1851 Women's Convention, Akron, OhioWell, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that 'twixt the negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what's all this here talking about?That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?
32Abolition and Congress Abolitionist deluged Congress with petitions—gag rule of 1838—it forbid the discussion of slavery in Congress—it was found by John Quincy AdamsPresident Jackson attacked abolitionists as fanatic's intent on instigating a slave insurrection.Abolitions were denied the used of the mails to distribute their materials