2 Fall Protection Outline Fall Protection RequirementsCompetent PersonsConstruction FatalitiesFall FactsFall Protection System TypesUse, operation, and inspectionInstalling, dissembling, and maintaining
3 Competent PersonOne who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
4 Qualified Personone who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter
5 Anatomy of a Fall.33sec./2 feet.67 sec./7 feetIt takes most people about 1/3 of a second to become aware.It takes another 1/3 of a second for the body to react.A body can fall up to 7 feet in 2/3 of a second.1 sec./16 feet2 sec./64 feet
6 Acceleration = 32 ft/sec² Deceleration = 0 ft/sec² This is an actual fatality photographRegion 6 News Release: OSHA Thurs., June 13, 2002 Contact: Diana Petterson or Elizabeth Todd Phone: (214) , ext. 222 or 221Failure to Protect Tower Construction Workers Brings New Braunfels, Texas, Firm $44,100 in OSHA Fines Agency Cites Texcom Services Following Fatal Accident in MayDALLAS -- The failure of a New Braunfels, Texas, communications tower erector firm to provide appropriate hoisting equipment and training for its employees has resulted in citations and proposed penalties of $44,100 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).OSHA has cited The Waylon Group Ltd., doing business as Texcom Services with two alleged safety violations, following its investigation of a May accident in which two workers were killed and one was seriously injured. All three fell approximately 200 feet while being lowered from the tower by a single rope.The Labor Department agency cited the company for one alleged willful violation for failing to use appropriate equipment to hoist the workers, contrary to guidelines established by OSHA and the tower erection and servicing industry for personnel hoisting. A willful violation is defined as one committed with an intentional disregard of or plain indifference to the OSHA Act and regulations.An alleged serious violation was issued for failing to train employees to recognize jobsite hazards. A serious violation is one that could cause death or serious physical harm to employees when the employer knew or should have known of the hazard.Texcom Services employs about nine workers. The company was erecting a Verizon Wireless tower near the intersection of Highways 21 and 77 near Lincoln, Texas.Employers and employees with questions regarding workplace safety and health standards can call the nearest OSHA office. OSHA's toll-free hotline may be used to report workplace accidents, fatalities, or situations posing imminent danger to workers. The number is The company has 15 working days from receipt of the citations to comply, request an informal conference with the area director, or to contest the citations and penalties before the independent Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.
7 Force of FallsForce of Fall = Weight X Distance = 200 lb. worker+20 lb. tools = 220 X 6’ Fall = 1,320 lb. force
8 Construction Fatalities AN AVERAGE OF MORE THAN ONE CONSTRUCTION WORKER DIES FROM A FALL EACH AND EVERY DAY OF THE YEAR (INCLUDES SATURDAY, SUNDAY, AND HOLIDAYS)A FULL 35% (428) OF CONSTRUCTION FATALITIES FOR 2006 ARE ATTRIBUTED TO FALLS!!!151 OF THOSE WORKERS DIED FROM FALLING FROM A ROOF67 DIED FROM FALLS FROM SCAFFOLDING67 DIED FROM FALLING FROM LADDERS35 DIED FROM FALLS FROM THE FLOOR, DOCK OR GROUND LEVEL.19 DIED FROM FALLS THROUGH OPEN FLOOR HOLES
9 Effective Personal Fall Arrest System Stops an employee during a fallLimits the arresting force to 1,800 lbs.Restricts free fall to 6ft. or less & prevents contact with a lower levelHas an anchor point capable of supporting 5,000 lbs. or 2 times the intended loadSupervised by a qualified person
10 Fall Arrest Components Anchorage – a secure point of attachment for lifelines or lanyards capable of withstanding 5,000 lbs. of force or twice the intended load.Connector – device used to connect parts of the personal fall arrest or positioning device systems together. Examples include carabiners, buckles, D-rings and snap hooks.
12 Harness & Lanyard Inspection Inspect your harness before each use.Inspect all buckles, straps, Dee-rings, for damage or wear.Contact your supervisor or safety and remove equipment if defective or once involved in a fall. One time use ONLY!Never tie knots in lanyards or lifelines as it reducesstrength by over 50%. They will snap and you willhit the ground!
13 Harness Fitting Chest strap tightened at mid chest “D” ring between shoulder bladesProper snugness shoulder to hipsButt strap supports the loadLeg straps snug but not binding
14 Proper Adjustment Is Key “Rules of Thumb”Be able to reach your D-ring with your thumbMaximum Four (flat) Fingers of Slack at the legs, straps as high as comfortably possibleEnsure chest strap is across the chest/breastboneHave a buddy double check for twists, etc…
15 Fall Protection Components Positioning Device System - Full body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning. These devices shall be rigged such that an employee cannot free fall more than 2 feetY-hook re-bar assembly. Inspect all components prior to each and every use
16 Fall Protection Components Body Harness – straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
17 Guardrail SystemPrevents a person from falling. The top edge of the guardrails must be 42 inches (+/- 3” inches) above the walking/working level. Mid-rail is also required. System capable of withstanding a force of at least 200 lbs. of outward or downward force.
18 Fall Restraint Restraint Line Edge Fall restraint assumes the employee cannot reach the edge.He is basically on a short leash.If the employee could reach to the edge and fall over the edge, he must be in fall arrest.
19 Fall Protection Systems Fall ArrestSlows down and stops a person from falling to a lower working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a full body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these.
20 Fall Distance with 6’ Shock Absorbing Lanyard 6’ Lanyard Length3.5’ Deceleration Device5’ From D-Ring to Worker’s Feet3’ Safety Factor (stretch, bounce, etc.)Total 18.5’ below anchorage pointSee interpretations for additional guidance.All distances are approximate and shown for illustration only. It is critical to maintain the safety factor distance!
21 Retractable Lifelines Very effective for vertical applications.Designed to stop in 1 –2 feet, minimizing total fall distance and impact forces on the worker’s body
22 Do Not Hook Lanyards to Retractables! This worker is hooked to a retractable lifeline with his lanyard.This can cause hook failures and affect the locking capability of the retractable.The retractable should be attached directly to the “D” ring.
23 Prevent Swing Falls Swing Fall Be aware of potential swing fall hazards – many manufacturers also require that their SRL’s be installed above the worker to ensure proper action of the retractable mechanism.
24 Aerial Lift EquipmentUse short lanyard and secure it prior to moving any boom type lift equipmentUse only the manufacturer providedanchor pointNever stand on the guardrailSecure loose material or equipment within lift basket
25 Floor Openings Any hole 2” or greater must be protected with cover Secure cover and mark“HOLE- DO NOT REMOVE”Cover must support twice the intended loadFor Vehicle loading, design at 4 times the intended load
26 Rescue PlanSafety Dept. & Competent Person will develop a Rescue Plan as part of the Pre-Task PlanCommon Approaches:Provide ladder for person to accessAccess person with aerial lift
27 Harness Pressure Points Spread load across butt strap and belt strap if on the harnessExcess pressure here can cut blood flow to the legsSome studies have indicated permanent damage to the lower extremities when the worker hangs for more than twenty (20) minutes