What Causes Falls in Construction Duty to Have Fall Protection Competent Person Fall Protection Criteria for Commercial Contractors Conventional Fall Protection Systems Alternative Fall Protection Systems Rescue Plans / Suspension Trauma Deteriorated Deck Replacement
No inspection by competent person No personal fall arrest system worn No fall protection system in place Harness worn but not attached to anchor Loss of footing, balance, or grip Sixty percent (60%)of all falls were preventable by fall protection.
Work 6 feet above lower levels to which you could fall shall be protected by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. Alternative fall protection systems are available for Roofing, Leading Edge Work, & Overhand Brick Laying. OSHA has separate“Residential Construction” fall protection guidelines available in STD 3- 0.1A
(1) "Unprotected sides and edges.“ (2) "Leading edges." (3) "Hoist areas." (4) "Holes." (5) "Formwork and reinforcing steel." (6) "Ramps, runways, and other walkways." (7) "Excavations." (8) "Dangerous equipment." (9) "Overhand bricklaying and related work.“ 10) "Roofing work on Low-slope roofs." (11) "Steep roofs." (12) "Precast concrete erection." (13) "Residential construction." (14) "Wall openings." (15) "Walking/working surfaces not otherwise addressed."
The competent person is designated by the employer; The competent person must have the training, knowledge, or experience to identify existing and/or potential hazards; and: The competent person must HAVE AUTHORITY TO TAKE CORRECTIVE ACTIONS!
"Guardrail system" means a barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. Definitions
Top rail, mid-rail, and toeboard Top rail shall be 42" (plus or minus 3 inches) Must withstand 200 pounds of force outward or downward Surfaced to prevent injury No projection hazard at rail ends All rails at least 1/4" thick Mid rail shall be ½ the distance between top rail and working/walking surface Must withstand 150 pounds of force outward & downward May be substituted with mesh screen, balusters <19” apart Toe board shall be at least 3 ½” wide (2”x4”) Wood guardrails (2”x4”) shall have vertical supports a maximum of eight (8) feet apart (Appendix B)
Employees working in the hoist area shall be protected by a guardrail system or personal fall arrest system
"Personal fall arrest system" means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. The maximum allowable force applied to the body cannot exceed 1,800 pounds
"Deceleration distance" means the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. If one of these parts fails, the system fails. Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kn.) per employee attached.
Freefall = 6 feet maximum Deceleration Distance = 3.5 feet maximum Lifeline elongation = 2 feet maximum Total fall before stopping = 11.5 feet Portion of body landing below attachment point approximately 5 feet minimum Harness effect = 1 ft. Total clearance below attachment point required to avoid contacting lower level may be as great as 16.5 feet or more!
The fall protection standard states: “The employer shall provide for the prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves. Generally “Prompt Rescue” means within 15 minutes, starting from the time of the incident to the time medical treatment is provided. Rescue Plans should be practiced: most self rescue attempts fail, wasting several minutes before medical rescue is contacted.
Suspension Trauma can occur any time a person’s legs become immobile, with the worker in the upright position (dehydration and heat stress are also factors) When blood pools in the legs, the hearts natural reaction is to slow down, reducing the blood flow to the brain. Failure to provide prompt rescue, or provide adequate foot support, which reduces pressure on the legs and allows blood to flow normally, serious damage to the vital organs can occur.
Never permit employees to work alone in a harness Workers should be trained to try to move their legs in the harness and try to push against any available footholds. If possible, workers should try to get horizontal (raise the legs & lower the head) Effectively communicate the EMS personnel the length of the time the employee has been suspended in the harnesses, the possibility of suspension trauma, and the serious/fatal health effects. Do not immediately stand fall victims up vertically, keep them horizontal or let them sit-up slowly. Limit up-right suspension to five minutes
Subpart M allows three alternatives for pre- cast concrete, leading edge work, overhead bricklaying and roofing. Controlled Access Zone Warning Line System Trades performing tasks other than the three listed above may use warning line systems as a means of fall protection, however the warning lines must be a minimum of 15 feet away from the unprotected edge and a de-minimus citation can still be issued by OSHA. Safety Monitoring System
"Warning line system" means a barrier erected on a roof to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge, and which designates an area in which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrail, personal fall arrest system, or safety net systems to protect employees in the area. "Safety-monitoring system" means a safety system in which a competent person is responsible for recognizing and warning employees working outside the warning line system of fall hazards. Safety Monitors must receive specialized training, and may not perform alternative duties that distract them from the monitoring function.
Warning line systems and safety monitors cannot be utilized on steep roofs (pitch greater than 4 to 12) Warning lines must be six (6) feet away from the edge, and 10 feet back when mechanical equipment is in use. Low sloped roofs rise four units or less for every run of 12 units 4 12
Warning lines must be maintained throughout the project: The lines must remain a minimum of six feet away from the edge Stanchions must support 16 pounds of force without tipping over The warning lines cannot sag below 34 inches Materials cannot be stored outside of the warning line system
Any hole greater than 2 inches by 2 inches Includes Skylights Roof Opening must be protected by a guardrail system or personal fall arrest system Covers shall support twice the intended load
1. The buddy system is another term for safety monitor? 2. More than one person can connect to an roof anchor designed for 5,000 pounds. 3. Full Body Harnesses come in several different sizes, and must fit the person correctly. 4. Skylight domes may meet the OSHA requirement for a hole cover? 5. Guardrail heights will vary when insulation is fastened to the roof?