Presentation on theme: "Fall Protection 1926 Subpart M – Fall Protection"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fall Protection 1926 Subpart M – Fall Protection This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA 10-hour Construction Industry outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience.This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor..
2 Falls in ConstructionFalls are the leading cause of deaths in the construction industry.Most fatalities occur when employees fall from open-sided floors and through floor openings.Falls from as little as 4 to 6 feet can cause serious lost-time accidents and sometimes death.Open-sided floors and platforms 6 feet or more in height must be guarded.The issues of how to provide fall protection for employees at construction sites are difficult ones. There are so many different types of work and so many different kinds of fall hazards that it is not possible to organize fall protection into a neat set of rules that fit all situations. OSHA reflects this difficulty when it places its rules for fall protection in several different subparts in the Construction Standards, depending primarily on the nature of the work being undertaken. There are separate locations, for example, for fall protection during work on scaffolds, during work on certain cranes and derricks, during work in tunnels, during work on stairways and ladders, during steel erection, etc.
3 Fall Protection We need to discuss: The working conditions that prompt use of fall protectionOptions that are available to protect workers from fallsThe issues of how to provide fall protection for employees at construction sites are difficult ones. There are so many different types of work and so many different kinds of fall hazards that it is not possible to organize fall protection into a neat set of rules that fit all situations. OSHA reflects this difficulty when it places its rules for fall protection in several different subparts in the Construction Standards, depending primarily on the nature of the work being undertaken. There are separate locations, for example, for fall protection during work on scaffolds, during work on certain cranes and derricks, during work in tunnels, during work on stairways and ladders, during steel erection, etc.
4 Fall Protection Workers should be able to: List at least four methods of fall protection available for protecting workersState the main criteria that prompts use of fall protection for construction workersThe issues of how to provide fall protection for employees at construction sites are difficult ones. There are so many different types of work and so many different kinds of fall hazards that it is not possible to organize fall protection into a neat set of rules that fit all situations. OSHA reflects this difficulty when it places its rules for fall protection in several different subparts in the Construction Standards, depending primarily on the nature of the work being undertaken. There are separate locations, for example, for fall protection during work on scaffolds, during work on certain cranes and derricks, during work in tunnels, during work on stairways and ladders, during steel erection, etc.
5 Fall ProtectionThe issues of how to provide fall protection for employees at construction sites are difficult ones. There are so many different types of work and so many different kinds of fall hazards that it is not possible to organize fall protection into a neat set of rules that fit all situations. OSHA reflects this difficulty when it places its rules for fall protection in several different subparts in the Construction Standards, depending primarily on the nature of the work being undertaken. There are separate locations, for example, for fall protection during work on scaffolds, during work on certain cranes and derricks, during work in tunnels, during work on stairways and ladders, during steel erection, etc.
6 Frequently Cited Violations Failure to protect workers from falls of 6 feet or more off unprotected sides or edges, e.g. floors and roofs. ( (b)(1); (b)(10); and (b)(11))Failure to protect workers from falling into or through holes and openings in floors and walls. ( (b)(4) and (b)(14))Failure to provide guardrails on runways and ramps where workers are exposed to falls of 6 feet or more to a lower level. ( (b)(6))
7 Fall Protection Options Reference (b)(1)General rule: If an employee can fall six feet or more onto a lower level, fall protection must be provided.What type of fall protection will I need?In most cases, a guardrail system, a safety net system, or a personal fall arrest system must be used. In some cases fences, barricades, covers, equipment guards or a controlled access zone may be used.Employees must be protected not just from falling off a surface, but from falling through holes and from having objects fall on them from above.Personal FallArrest System(PFAS)Safety NetGuardrails
8 Fall Protection Planning Reference 1926 Subpart M App CAn employer may use a variety of fall protection systems to protect employees. These systems must meet OSHA requirements. The competent person must make frequent and regular inspections, as required, to determine if these systems meet OSHA requirements before employees rely on these systems. More detail may be found in 29 CFREmployers engaged in leading edge work, precast concrete erection work, or residential construction work who can demonstrate that it is infeasible or it creates a greater hazard to use conventional fall protection equipment may develop a fall protection plan that provides other measures to be taken to reduce or eliminate fall hazards for workers. Fall protection plans must conform to OSHA provisions and be prepared by a qualified person. Although a fall protection is required, it does not have to written, nor does it have to be site specific. Fall protection plans must identify locations where conventional fall protection methods cannot be used and set up controlled access zones and any necessary safety monitoring systems.See STD 3-0.1ALanyards and PFAS in useFall protection systems and work practicesmust be in place before you start work.
9 Safety Line Anchorages Must be independent of any platform anchorage and capable of supporting at least 5,000 lbs. per workerReference (d)(15)
10 Guardrail Systems Top rail, mid-rail, and toeboard Top rail 42" (plus or minus 3 inches)Toeboard minimum 3 1/2 inches highWhen conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria.When employees are using stilts, the top edge height of the top rail, must be increased an amount equal to the height of the stilts.
11 Midrails Required if no wall or parapet at least 21" high Installed midway between top rail and working levelScreens & mesh run all along entire openingBalusters, when used, not more than 19 ” apartMidrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members must be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working surface when there is no wall or parapet wall at least 21 inches high.Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and equivalent structural members shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 150 pounds (666 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the midrail or other member.
12 Guardrail Systems Must withstand 200 pound force Surfaced to prevent injuryNo projection hazard at rail endsAll rails at least 1/4" thickGuardrail systems shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied within 2 inches (5.1 cm) of the top edge, in any outward or downward direction, at any point along the top edge.When the 200 pound (890 N) test load specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail shall not deflect to a height less than 39 inches (1.0 m) above the walking/working level.200 lb. of down & side force from 2"
13 Safety NetsReference (c)How do safety net systems protect me?Safety net systems catch the employee if he/she does fall. The safety nets:Must be strong enough to support a falling employee;Must have sufficiently small mesh openings so the employee cannot fall through the net;Must be close enough to the surface of the walking/working surface so that the fall into the safety net will not still injure the employee (never more than 30 feet below the walking/working level);Must be close enough to the edge of the working surface (the outer edge of the net between 8-13 feet from the edge of the walking/working surface, depending on the distance to the walking/working surface) so that the falling employee will not slip past the net.Place as close as possible, but no more than 30 feet below where employees work
14 Safety Nets Border rope strength of 5000 pounds Extends sufficiently from outer edge400 pound drop test or certified by employer or CPObjects removed within shiftInspected weeklyVertical distance from working surface to horizontal plane of net up to five feet; extend net eight feet past working edge.Between five feet up to ten feet, extend net 10 feet past edge.Over ten feet, extend 13 feet
15 When Fall Protection is Needed Walkways & rampsOpen sides & edgesExcavationsConcrete forms & rebarHolesRoofsWall openingsBricklayingWhere should I expect fall protection to be provided?When an employee is on a walking/working surface that has an unprotected edge.When an employee is constructing a leading edge.When an employee may fall through a hole in the walking/working surface.When an employee is working on the face of formwork or reinforcing steel.When employees are on ramps, runways and other walkways.When employees are working at the edge of an excavation, well, pit, or shaft.When employees are working above dangerous equipment (even employees working less than six feet over dangerous equipment must be protected).When an employee is performing overhand bricklaying and related work.When an employee is performing roofing work.When an employee is engaging in precast concrete erection (with certain exceptions).When an employee is engaged in residential construction (with certain exceptions).Residential Construction
16 Guard ramps, runways, and other walkways Walkways and RampsReference (b)(6)Ramps, runways, and other walkways must be protected by guardrail systems when employees can fall 6 feet or more.The walking/working surface must be strong enough to support employees safely. If not, employees may not work on the surface. This knowledge will be gained during frequent and regular inspections made, as required, by competent persons designated by the employer.Guard ramps, runways, and other walkways
17 Residential Construction Reference (b)(13)This is correct for activities not covered by STD 3-0.1AAll other activities – refer to STD 3-0.1A, Interim Fall Protection Guidelines for Residential ConstructionIn residential construction, you must be protected if you can fall more than 6 feet
18 Unprotected Sides & Edges Reference (b)(1)Unprotected edgeUnprotected sides and edges must have guardrails or equivalent
19 Leading Edge WorkReference (b)What’s wrong with this?¼ inch rope is allowed, but it must meet the criteria of (b)(3), etc.no midrailno toeboards- sagging is not allowedThis 1/4" nylon rope alone is not a proper way to guard this open floor
20 Warning Lines Erected around all sides of roof Erected at least six feet from edge if no mechanical equipment is used.Consist of ropes, wires, or chains, and supporting stanchionsFlagged at least every six feetWhen mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the roof edge which is parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet (3.1 m) from the roof edge which is perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation.
21 Warning Lines Lowest point (including sag) is no less than 34” Resists 16 outwardly directed pound force at 30”Only roofing work employees allowed between roof edge and warning lineProtect workers from mechanical equipmentThe rope, wire, or chain shall be rigged and supported in such a way that its lowest point (including sag) is no less than 34 inches from the walking/working surface and its highest point is no more than 39 inchesAfter being erected, with the rope, wire, or chain attached, stanchions capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30 inches above the base, perpendicular to the warning line, and in the direction of the floor, roof, or platform edge;
22 Warning Lines Points of access formed by two warning lines When access not in use, closed offPoints of access, materials handling areas, storage areas, and hoisting areas shall be connected to the work area by an access path formed by two warning lines.When the path to a point of access is not in use, a rope, wire, chain, or other barricade, equivalent in strength and height to the warning line, shall be placed across the path at the point where the path intersects the warning line erected around the work area, or the path shall be offset such that a person cannot walk directly into the work area.
23 Controlled Access Zones Where leading edge and other operations are taking place the controlled access zone shall be defined by a control lineAt least six feet from leading edgeNot more than 25 feet from leading edgeWhen used to control access to areas where leading edge and other operations are taking place the controlled access zone shall be defined by a control line or by any other means that restricts access.When control lines are used, they shall be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor more than 25 feet (7.7 m) from the unprotected or leading edge, except when erecting precast concrete members.
24 Controlled Access Zones For precast concrete operations, CL six to sixty feet from edgeExtends entire length of leading edgeConnected at ends to guardrail or wallFlagged or marked at least every six feet39 to 45 inches high200 pound breaking strengthControl line can be used instead of a guardrail along leading edge to protect workersWhen erecting precast concrete members, the control line shall be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor more than 60 feet (18 m) or half the length of the member being erected, whichever is less, from the leading edge.The control line shall extend along the entire length of the unprotected or leading edge and shall be approximately parallel to the unprotected or leading edge.The control line shall be connected on each side to a guardrail system or wall.
25 Safety Monitors Must be CP to recognize fall hazards Warns employees when:Unaware of hazardsActing in unsafe mannerSame surface and within sightClose enough to be heardNo other responsibilitiesMechanical equipment not used where safety monitoring system being used.
26 This opening could be made safe by using a guardrail, or strong cover Sky LightsReference (b)(4)(i), (b)(10), (b)(11), and (i)Covers must be:-- able to support at least twice the weight of employees, equipment, and materials that may be imposed on them at one time.-- secured to prevent accidental displacement from wind, equipment, or workers’ activities.-- color coded or bear the markings “HOLE” or “COVER.”Holes (b)(4):Personal fall arrest systems, covers, or guardrail systems shall be erected around holes (including skylights) that are more than 6 feet above lower levels.NOTE – All floor holes must be protected against slips/trips – even if less than 6 feetThis opening could be made safe by using a guardrail, or strong cover
27 Floor Holes Cover completely and securely ImproperlyCoveredReference (b)(4)Cover completely and securelyIf no cover, can guard with a guardrailWithstand twice expected loadMarked with ‘HOLE’ or ‘COVER’
28 Concrete Forms and Rebar Reference (g) and (b)Employees on a form scaffold can be exposed to falls of less than 10 feet., covers employees working on whalers.PFAS when working on formwork or rebarCover or cap protruding rebar
29 ExcavationsGuard excavations more than 6 feet deep when they are not readily seen because of plant growth or other visual barriersReference (b)(7)Employees at the edge of an excavation 6 feet or more deep shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences, barricades, or covers.If walk-ways are used to permit workers to cross over excavations, guardrails are required on the walkway if the fall would be 6 feet or more to the lower level.In addition to needing proper guarding, this excavation is not properly shored
30 Roofs If you work on roofs and can fall Reference (b)(10)Reference (b)(11) - steep roofsRoofers - First refer to STD 3-0.1AIf workers are working on roofs with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet or more above lower levels, they shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems or a combination of a warning line system and guard-rail system, warning line system and safety net system, warning line system and personal fall arrest system, or warning line system and safety monitoring system.If you work on roofs and can fallmore than 6 feet, you must be protected
31 Wall OpeningsReference (b)(14)Employees working on, at, above, or near wall openings (including those with chutes attached) where the outside bottom edge of the wall opening is 6 feet or more above lower levels and the inside bottom edge of the wall opening is less than 39 inches above the walking/working surface must be protected from falling by the use ofeither a guardrail system, a safety net system, or a personal fall arrest system.Wall openingIf you work near wall openings 6 feet or more above lower levels you must be protected from falling
32 Good Work Practices Perform work at ground level if possible Example: building prefab roofs on the ground and lifting into place with a craneTether or restrain workers so they can't reach the edgeDesignate and use safety monitors (This is less desirable of all the systems)Use conventional fall protection
33 Personal Fall Protection Systems Work Positioning SystemsRestraint SystemsSuspension SystemFall Arrest
34 Work Positioning Systems These systems are designed to hold and sustain the user at a work location and limit the free-fall to two feet or less, as in rebar work or tree trimming.
35 Restraint SystemsThese are systems designed to prevent the user from reaching an area where free-fall could occur so no free-fall is possible, as in leading edge roof work.
36 Suspension SystemThese systems support and suspend the user while being transported up or down vertically and will not allow a free fall.
37 Personal Fall ArrestThese systems are designed to stop a free-fall of up to 6 feet, and limit the maximum forces of a user to pounds or less, as in steel erection or elevated maintenance work.
38 Use of Body BeltsEffective January 1, 1998, body belts are prohibited as a fall arrest device.Body belts can still be used as a positioning device.
39 Common Pieces of Equipment Rope & CableGrabsSelf RetractingLifelinesShock AbsorbingLanyardCarabinersFull BodyHarnessCross-ArmStrap
40 Requirements for PFASLimit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds when used with a body harness;Be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet nor contact any lower level;Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet; andHave sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
41 Calculate Total Fall Distance When using a shock-absorbing lanyard, it is important to understand how to calculate potential fall distance to avoid contact with a lower level.1. When using a 6 ft. shock-absorbing lanyard and a full-body harness, first add the length of the shock-absorbing lanyard, 6 ft.; to the maximum elongation of the shock absorber during deceleration, 3-1/2 ft.; to the average height of a worker, 6 ft.
42 Calculate Total Fall Distance 2. Then, add a safety factor of 3 ft. to allow for the possibility of an improperly fit harness, a taller than average worker and/or a miscalculation of distance.3. The total, 18-1/2 ft., is the suggested safe fall clearance distance, this is the height at which you must attach to an anchorage to minimize the risk of contact with a lower level.NOTE: If a higher anchorage is not accessible, a shorter lanyard or a fall limiter should be used.
44 Rescue SystemsThese systems which are designed to raise or lower a user to safety in the event of an emergency, so no free- fall is possible.
45 Rescue SystemsProlonged suspension from fall arrest systems can cause orthostatic intolerance, which, in turn, can result in serious physical injury, or potentially, death.Research indicates that suspension in a fall arrest device can result in unconsciousness, followed by death, in less than 30 minutes.To reduce the risk associated with prolonged suspension in fall arrest systems, employers should implement plans to prevent prolonged suspension in fall protection devices.
46 Rescue Systems OSHA recommends the following general practices: Rescue suspended workers as quickly as possible.Be aware of signs and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance.Be aware that orthostatic intolerance is potentially life threatening. Suspended workers with head injuries or who are unconscious are particularly at risk.Be aware of factors that can increase the risk of suspension trauma.Be aware that some authorities advise against moving the rescued workers to a horizontal position too quickly.
47 Training Employers must provide fall protection training The training is to teach you:How to recognize hazardsHow to minimize hazardsThe training must cover:Fall hazardsFall protection systemsUse of fall protection devicesReference (a)(1)How should I be trained?Training must be provided to each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. In construction, this will involve most employees. The training by a competent person must enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and train employees in the procedures to be followed to minimize these hazards.The training must include:The nature of fall hazards in the work area;The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting the fall protection systems to be used;The use and operation of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, warning line systems, safety monitoring systems, controlled access zones, and other protection;The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this system is used;The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of roofing work on low-sloped roofs;The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and materials and the erection of overhead protection; andThe role of employees in fall protection plans.The standards of subpart MThe employer must verify compliance with the training requirements by preparing a written certification record.The employer must retrain any employee when the employer has reason to believe that the trained employee does not have the understanding and skill required.
48 Summary If you can fall more than 6 feet, you must be protected Use fall protection on:walkways & ramps, open sides & edges, holes, concrete forms & rebar, excavations, roofs, wall openings, bricklaying, residential constructionProtective measures include guardrails, covers, safety nets, and Personal Fall Arrest SystemsDuty to have fall protection.OSHA requires employees to provide fall protections systems that must meet certain criteria:Walking and working surfaces must have sufficient strength and structural integrity to support employees safely.Employers must provide protection to employees working in areas with unprotected sides or edges 6 feet or more above a lower level.Specific types of protection are required in work areas with leading edges, in hoist areas, in work areas with holes, ramps, runways, and other walkways, in areas where excavations are being conducted, where dangerous equipment is being used, during overhand bricklaying, in roofing, in precast concrete erection, in residential construction, and in work areas with wall openings.Hard hats are required when workers may be exposed to falling objects.Other requirements include eitheruse of toeboards, screens or guardrail systems; oruse of a canopy structure; orbarricading area to which objects could fall and prohibiting employees from entrance.