Presentation on theme: "Fall Protection for Construction A Survival Guide"— Presentation transcript:
1Fall Protection for Construction A Survival Guide Georgia Tech
2StatisticsFalls are the number one cause of fatalities in the construction industry.workers are killed each year and more than 100,000 injured as a result of falls.Overall (including general industry) falls are the number two biggest cause of fatalities in the U.S. (motor vehicle accidents are number one).
3StatisticsFalls %Struck By %Electrical %Caught In %
4Statistics 40% of the fatalities were from heights over 40 feet Most falls occur on scaffolds or roofs25% of fall fatalities were from heights of feet25% of fall fatalities were from heights of feet
5Most Frequently Cited Unprotected sides & edges - Fall protection Fall hazards training programFall protection - Residential construction 6’ or moreFall protection - Roofing work on low-slope roofsFall protection - Steep roofs
6Physics of a FallA body in motion (free fall) can cover vast distances in a short period of time. Consider this:A body in free fall can travel 4 ft in 0.5 secondsA body in free fall can travel 16 ft. in 1 secondA body in free fall can travel 64 ft. in 2 seconds
7Application of Regulations Subpart M ( ) applies to fall protection during construction activities.There are a few exceptions from this rule for the following activities:InspectionInvestigationAssessing conditions prior to or after the work is performed
8Application of Regulations Other existing standards for fall protection are discussed in different standards (subpart M would not cover the following items):Scaffolds (subpart L)Cranes (subpart N)Steel Erection (subpart R)Stairs and Ladders (subpart X)Power Transmission (Subpart V)
9Contents of Subpart M 500: Scope, Application and definitions 501: Duty to have fall protection502: Fall protection systems503: Training RequirementsAppendicesA: Roof widthsB: Guardrail systemsC: Fall arrest systemsD: Positioning device systemsE: Fall Protection Plan
10Duty to Have Fall Protection 1926.501 Fall protection is required when one or more employees have exposure to falls of six feet or greater to the lower level.Surfaces must be inspected before the work begins.Employees are only permitted to be on surfaces that are strong enough to support them.
11Duty to have Fall Protection The following areas require fall protection when employees are exposed to falls (six feet or greater):Leading edgesRamps/runwaysResidential constructionHoist areasWall and floor openingsUnprotected sides and edgesAbove dangerous equipment (any height)Overhand brick layingSteep or low slope roofsWalking surfacesForm work and reinforcing steelExcavations, wells, pitsPrecast concrete
12Duty to have Fall Protection Low Slope Roofs Low slope roofs (under 50 feet in width):Fall protection systems orSafety monitor (with elements required in this subpart)Low slope roofs (50 feet width or greater):Fall protection systems (safety nets, guardrails, PFAS) or combination ofWarning lines and safety monitor orWarning lines and guardrails or PFAS
13Protection from Falling Objects 1926.501(c) Protection from falling objects is a requirement.Employee working in an area where there is a danger of falling objects must wear a hard hat.Employer must take steps to protect employees from hazards (establish barricades or build canopies).
14Types of Fall Protection Passive are protective systems that do not involve the actions of employees.Active includes systems and components that require manipulation by employees to make them effective in providing protection.
15Examples of Fall Protection Passive system include:GuardrailsSafety netsCoversFencesBarricadesActive systems components (personal fall arrest system-PFAS) include:Anchorage pointsLanyardSnap hooksLife linesBody harness
16Active Systems Designed to operate in free fall situations. Must be connected to other systems/components or activated to provide protection.Active systems are designed to protect employees from the following items:FallsForces that can cause injury
17Guardrails (b)Guardrails are the most common form of fall protection.May be made of wood, pipe, structural steel, or wire rope.Flags must be provided on wire rope to increase visibilityMust have top rail, mid rail, posts and toe boardSystem must be strong enough to support 200 pounds of force applied to the top railSteel or plastic bands are not acceptable
18Guardrails-Design Criteria 1926.502(b) The top rail must be elevated above the surface inches and must be free of jagged edges.The mid rail must be located between the top rail and the walking surface.Posts must be spaced no greater than 8 feet.Toe boards must be made of a solid material with no openings greater than one inch and be 3.5 inches high.Chains or movable rails must be used near hoists.
19Safety Net Systems (c)Placed beneath the working surface (not to exceed 30 feet) to catch personnel or falling material.Must be placed as close to the hazard as possible.Equipment must be drop tested and certified.Must be inspected weekly and after impact.Openings can not exceed six inches.Defective equipment can not be used.Safety nets must extend outward from the outer most projection of the work surfaces.
20PFAS (d)PFAS shall not be tied to a guardrail system or hoistsAll components of a fall arrest system must be inspected before each use and after impact.Action must be taken promptly to rescue fallen employees.
21PFAS 1926.502(d) When stopping a fall, a PFAS must: Limit the arresting force to 1800 pounds.Be rigid so that an employee can not fall more than 6 feet of contact a lower level.Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet.Strength to withstand 2X potential impact of employee falling 6 ft. or permitted fall distance.
22Inspecting Equipment 1926.502(d) Equipment must be inspected before each use for:Degradation due to ultraviolet lightAny other condition that is not normalThe following items must be inspected:Tears or other wearDeformed eyelets, D rings or other partsLabels/placardsDirt, grease, and oil
23PFAS (Harness) (d)Harness systems consist of either nylon or polyester and the best system will encompass the entire body (full body harness).Body belts can not be used for fall protection.A full body harness will evenly distribute weight across the waist, pelvis, and thighs.
24PFAS (Lanyard) (d)Lanyards connect the harness to the anchorage point.Must have a minimum breaking strength of 5000 pounds.Should be attached to a D ring between the shoulder blades above the employee.There are several types of lanyards that include: synthetic webbing, synthetic rope and shock absorbing.
25Types of Lanyards Self retracting Shock absorbing Synthetic rope Eliminates excess slack in the lanyard (cable, rope, or web)Shock absorbingDevice slows and eventually stops decent and absorbs the forces (i.e.: rip stitch controlled tearing)Synthetic ropeAbsorbs some of the force by stretchingSynthetic webbingStrong but not flexible (absorbs little force)
26PFAS (life Lines) (d)Life lines consist of flexible material connected at one or both ends to an anchorage point.There are two types of life lines:Vertical:hangs vertically (5000 pound minimum breaking strength)Horizontal: connects at both points to stretch horizontally (serves as connection point for other components of PFAS-total system must have safety factor of two).
27PFAS (Snap hooks) (d)Used to connect lanyards to D rings on a body harness.D rings must be compatible. Must be connected to harness or anchorage point only.Snap hooks must have 5,000 tensile strength and be proof tested to 3600 pounds.When using snap hooks:Use only one snap hook per D ring to prevent rolloutAll snap hooks must have a locking mechanism
28PFAS (Anchorage Points) 1926.502(d) The anchorage point is most effective when it is above the employee’s head. Located as to not allow an employee fall more than 6 feet.All anchorage points must be a solid immovable object that is capable of supporting 5000 pounds.Must not be used to support anything else.
29Positioning Device Systems 1926.502(e) Allows employee to be supported from a vertical surface (i.e.: wall or telephone pole).Must be inspected before each use for defects.Must be rigid for no more than a 2 foot free fall.Not a fall arrest system!The anchorage point must be capable of withstanding twice the potential impact of an employee’s fall or 3000 pounds, whichever is greater.
30Warning Line System 1926.502(f) Rope, wire, or chains are used to warn employees of an unprotected edge.Used mainly on roofs , where PFAS- impractical.Established not less than six feet from the edge.Materials must have sufficient strength and complete structure must withstand 16 pound tipping force.
31Controlled Access Zones (CAZ) 1926.502(g) Only qualified personnel involved in the operation are allowed to enter the zone.Ropes, wires, or chains are used to designate the area.Must be erected not less than six feet nor more than twenty five feet away from edge.Shall be connected on each side to wall.
32Controlled Access Zones (CAZ) 1926.502(g) CAZ must be defined by a control line (strength of 200 pounds) erected feet from the edgeLines must be flagged at six foot intervals.
33Safety Monitoring System 1926.502(h) Uses a monitor (competent person) to patrol the area and warn employees of the dangers.All safety monitors must comply with the following criteria:Be on the same level the work is being performedBe close enough to orally communicateHave no other assigned duties
34Safety Monitoring System 1926.502(h) Employees must comply with all instructions from the monitor.The full attention of the monitor must focus on protecting the employees.It is recommended that you have a written plan for using the safety monitoring system to address:Identification of the monitorRoles of employees in a monitoring systemTraining for using the monitoring system.
35Covers (i)Used to protect personnel from falling through holes in walking surfaces.Covers must be secured in place and the word “Hole” must be written on the cover.Covers must have sufficient strength to support:Twice the weight to be imposed upon it for pedestriansTwice the largest axle weight of vehicle traffic
36Falling Objects (j)Employers are required to protect their employees from falling objects.Some methods that might have to be used (when necessary) consist of:Installation of toe boards (at least 3.5 inches wide)Building barricade and restricting entranceInstallation of screens
37Fall Protection Plan 1926.502(k) Fall protection plans are allowed for the following operations:Residential constructionLeading edge constructionPrecast concrete erectionThe plan should be strictly enforced.The employer must demonstrate that it is impractical to use fall protection before a fall protection plan can be used as an alternative.
38Fall Protection Plan 1926.502(k) Plan must be developed by qualified person and made specific for each site (also must be up to date).Only as qualified person can make changes to a plan.A copy of the plan must be maintained at the site.
39Elements of a Fall Protection Plan Statement of PolicyFall Protection Systems to be UsedImplementation of PlanEnforcementAccident InvestigationChanges to the Plan
40TrainingAll employees exposed to fall hazards must receive training by a competent person that addresses:The nature of fall hazards in the work areaProcedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling and inspecting fall arrest equipmentUse and operation of fall arrest equipment
41Training 1926.503 Training elements: Role of employee in a safety monitoring system (when used)Limitations on the use of mechanical equipment for low slope roofsRole of employees in fall protection plansStandards contained inProcedure for handling and storage of equipment
42TrainingFall protection training must be certified by the employer through a written record.The latest training certificate must be maintained.Retraining is required when:There are changes in the work placeChanges in the type of fall protection usedThere are inadequacies in employee’s skills