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Fall Protection Refresher Orientation

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1 Fall Protection Refresher Orientation
FN000304 Welcome to Fall Protection Refresher Training. It takes more than talk to understand the do’s and don'ts of a fall protection program. Not understanding the hazards and or not using equipment properly can lead serious injury or death when it comes to protecting yourself from a fall.

2 Course Objectives Understand the definitions of fall prevention, fall restraint, and fall arrest. Understand the requirements of fall protection. Recognize the hazards associated with fall protection. Know where to seek help and advice for fall protection (FESHM Chapter 5066) At the end of this presentation you should know the difference between fall prevention, fall restraint, and fall arrest. We will review the hazards associated with fall protection and how to mitigate those hazards. We will discuss the requirements of Fermilab’s fall protection program and where you can seek help if you have any questions or concerns regarding fall protection.

3 Course Objectives Know how to inspect and wear personal fall arrest system equipment (PFAS). Know the requirements for anchorage points and how to tie off to them. We will review anchorage points requirements and types of connectors. You will learn how to inspect your personal fall arrest equipment and how to properly don your equipment. After the slide presentation you will watch a short video titled The ABC’s of Fall Protection. Once you have reviewed all the course material you must request and pass the online quiz to receive credit.

4 What is Fall Protection?
A series of reasonable steps taken to cause elimination or control of the injurious effects of an unintentional fall while accessing or working at height Fall protection is the process where measures are taken, such as guardrails, fall restraint, or personnel fall arrest systems, to ensure employees do not fall from elevations over four feet.

5 Fall Statistics Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in the construction industry. An average of 362 fatal falls occurred each year from 1995 to 1999, with the trend on the increase. The cost of care for injuries related to falls is a financial burden for the entire construction industry Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in the construction industry. You may expose to falls from activities other than construction. You may be working with an experiment, doing preventive maintenance, or working out of an articulating lift.

6 Where Do Fatal Falls Occur
We may spend a great deal of time discussing fatal falls, and their affect on industry, but…

7 Where Do Non-Fatal Falls Occur
… the frequency of falls is an equally important issue. Many employees throughout the US have been seriously injured in falls from ladders, scaffolds, etc.

8 Anatomy of a Fall .33sec./2 feet It takes most people about 1/3 of a second to become aware. It takes another 1/3 of a second for the body to react. A body can fall up to 7 feet in 2/3 of a second. .67 sec./7 feet 1 sec./16 feet Fall are unexpected and the time it takes to strike a lower level surface is frightfully fast. 2 sec./64 feet

9 Planning for Fall Protection
Best practice dictates that fall protection becomes an integral part of the work planning process, from constructability, to systems installation, to use and maintenance The workplace cannot be truly safe unless fall protection is incorporated into every phase of the process Planning will keep workers safe and minimize fall exposures Whether you are working at CDF, performing maintenance on equipment at heights, or working at heights on a construction project, you have to plan your work with the goal of eliminating any chance of a fall.

10 The Steps of Fall Protection?
When it comes to planning for fall protection, what would be the proper order of these methods? Prevention should be first – always strive to prevent the fall Positioning, including restraint, should be second, to provide safe access to the work location. Fall arrest may also be required Fall arrest is employed after the fall, so is one of the least-desirable approaches, assuming, as it does, that an employee will fall and that all systems will function properly to arrest the fall. Retrieval assumes the fall arrest system has already worked, and must be employed as quickly as possible to minimize further injury or damage. The key is that all steps must be taken as part of a systematic approach to fall protection, but the most effort and priority should be applied to preventing falls in the first place Is this the correct order?

11 Controlling Fall Exposures
General industry regulations (paraphrased) Every open-sided floor, platform, wall opening, or hole 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing, or the equivalent, on all open sides except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. Construction industry regulations (paraphrased) Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side, edge, or hole which is 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. We follow the OSHA standards at Fermilab and there are different heights where action is required. It is up to management to decide if work will be defined as construction. In either case, the goal is to provide a safe work environment were employees are protected from falls the could result in serious injury. Only a systematic approach to fall exposures will help to minimize the potential for falls

12 Controlling Fall Exposures
FESHM Chapter 5066 – Fall Protection Program Any worker, visiting scientist, or subcontractor involved in work activities and exposed to a fall hazard at or greater that 6’ will require fall protection if fall prevention methods cannot be used. 29 CFR 1910 and 29 CFR 1926 shall be followed when the work involves hazards that require fall protection.  There are requirements that apply to all general work as well as specific requirements based upon the work activity that is being performed.  Exceptions to fall protection requirements, as provided in , are ONLY for construction-related activities.  There are no fall protection exemptions for maintenance or operations work. Fermilab’s ESH Manual Chapter 5066 simply states, “any employee, user, visiting scientist, involved in work activities that expose them to a fall hazard at or greater than four feet will be protected by a fall protection system.

13 Using Fall Protection Systems
Select fall protection systems appropriate for given situations. Use proper construction and installation of safety systems. Supervise employees properly. Use safe work procedures. Train workers in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of fall protection systems. Evaluate the effectiveness of all steps When using fall protection systems, the correct system needs to be selected for the given situation. The system needs to be installed properly Workers need to be supervised and observed to ensure safe work procedures Anyone using personal fall arrest equipment must be trained on the use of the equipment and have an understanding of the hazards present. Fall protection systems need to be evaluated and assessed by management

14 Fall Protection Methods
Fall Prevention- A system that will prevent a person from falling to a lower level. Example: Railings Work Positioning or Fall Restraint- A system that will allow the worker to approach a fall hazard and work but will not allow the worker to fall to a lower level. Fall Arrest- A system that will protect a person from crashing on to a lower level after a fall. Example: Fall Arrest Harness/lanyard The different types of fall protection methods include; fall prevention - a system design to prevent a worker from falling to a lower level such as guardrails; work positioning or fall restraint - a system that uses personal fall arrest equipment but is designed to let a work approach a fall hazard but not fall to a lower level; fall arrest - a system that will prevent a worker from crashing to a lower level in the event they do fall, such as a body harness and shock absorbing lanyard.

15 Competent Person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Fall protection systems must be overseen by competent persons. This is generally the responsibility of the supervisor.

16 Qualified Person Qualified person" means one with a recognized degree or professional certificate and extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field who is capable of design, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project, or product. Qualified persons, as defined in fall protection systems, is a person who has a recognized degree or professional certificate and extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field who is capable of design, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project, or product. For example a qualified person would be needed to design lifeline systems and determine anchorage points.

17 When Is Fall Protection Required?
What are the fall distances that trigger guardrails and fall protection? What fall distances trigger the measures that need to be taken for guardrails and fall protection?

18 When Is Fall Protection Required?
Fall prevention is required for falls onto dangerous equipment. Zero fall distance is allowed. Zero fall distance is allowed for working around dangerous equipment. Dangerous equipment is defined as equipment (such as pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, machinery, electrical equipment, and other units) which, as a result of form or function, may be hazardous to employees who fall onto or into such equipment.

19 When Is Fall Protection Required?
Fall protection is required for work on forms or steel reinforcing over 6’ in height In construction, working on forms or reinforcing steel over six feet requires fall protection measures.

20 When Is Fall Protection Required?
Fall protection is required for scaffolding over 6’ in height. OSHA allows up to 10’ but the Lab rule is 6’. OSHA allows workers in construction working on scaffolding to work at heights up to ten feet without fall protection but at Fermilab we require workers to have fall protection at six feet.

21 When Is Fall Protection Required?
Fall protection required for walking / working surfaces over 4’ in height in general industry The general industry standard, which applies to any Lab work not deemed construction, requires fall protection at four feet.

22 When Is Fall Protection Required?
Fall protection required for walking / working surfaces over 6’ in height in construction Any walking/working surface on a construction site requires fall protection measures starting at six feet.

23 When Is Fall Protection Required?
Fall protection is required for vertical ladders without cages over 24’ Vertical ladders over twenty-four feet without cages require fall protection.

24 When Is Fall Protection Required?
No fall protection is required for portable extension ladders Use of portable extension ladders are not covered under the fall protection standard because they have their own standard in the OSHA General Industry and Construction Standards

25 Hazard Recognition What are the allowable controls and best practices?
Lets take a look at actual photographs to get a better understanding of controls and best practices for fall protection.

26 Walking & Working Surfaces
Hazards with working/walking surfaces Open-sided floors Holes Leading edges Fall hazards on working and walking surfaces can be open-sided floors, holes, and leading edges. In the photograph is that a lanyard, or the vacuum cord hanging down? What is the worker anchored to? How far can he fall? Did he use the swing stage to access this work location? Is that a hazard? There are lots of questions, but the answer to this situation is, proper work planning was needed to eliminate the hazards.

27 Open Sided Floors Guardrails Restraint Devices
Open sided floors should be protected by guardrails, as pictured on the right. If not feasible, fall restraint can be used as shown in the photograph on the left side.

28 Wood Guardrail Construction
Proper Height Midrails Toeboards Adequate Strength When guardrails are used for fall prevention they must be forty-two inches high, plus or minus three inches, they must support 200 lbs in an outward or downward direction. Wood surfaces must be smooth and all posts cut flush to prevent injury.

29 Guardrail Construction
Bad Better The photograph on the left is not adequate because of gaps at end of rails and extension beyond posts. The right photograph shows a properly built guardrail.

30 Cable Guardrail Construction
Proper height Cannot deflect below 39” Marked every 6’ Terminations and attachments Maintenance Cable guardrail is sometimes used on the job and it must meet the minimum requirements. It has to be at forty-two inches high and cannot deflect below thirty-nine inches. It has to be marked every six feet so it is easily visible. It must have adequate terminations and attachments. These types of guardrails do require maintenance to ensure they remain functional.

31 Accessways/Ladderways
Bad Better Ladder access is sometimes required to lower levels and proper work planning can eliminate floor openings. The ladder way requires fall protection, with a maximum opening of eighteen inches to the side of the ladder, or an offset entry to minimize the hazard of employees “stumbling” into the opening

32 Holes Secured indentified covers Guardrails
Holes in floors need to be guarded with railing or covered. Covers must be clearly marked, secured to prevent displacement, and capable of supporting twice the intended load.

33 Skylights Must be protected
Ideally, barricades prevent access to the skylights. If covers are provided, they must support twice the intended load. The photo on the right is a person sat on a skylight to eat his lunch, and fell through. When accessing a roof all hazards must be identified. Must be protected

34 Aerial Work Platforms A personal fall arrest system (PFAS) is required whenever you are working in an Articulating and/or telescoping boom lifts and bucket trucks Use the manufacture’s designated anchorage points. When working in articulating and/or telescoping boom lifts or bucket trucks you are required to wear a personal fall arrest system. Make sure you use a fall restraint system that prevents you from leaving the work platform or bucket. When you tie off only use the manufacture’s designated tie off point. Consult the manufacture’s user manual if needed.

35 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Should only be used when other fall prevention means can not be used or are not feasible. Proper work planning can eliminate most situations where a personal fall arrest system is required. Most likely you will experience some type of injury if you are involved in a fall event. Personal fall arrest systems should only be used when other fall prevention means cannot be used or are not feasible.

36 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Used to protect an employee from hitting a lower level once they have fallen. Components include: An anchorage point Body harness Deceleration devices Connectors – lanyards, rope grabs, anchorage connectors What does the term “fall arrest” mean to you? It simply means stopping the person from hitting a lower level after they have fallen. It is not considered a fall prevent system if you are able to fall.  The components of a fall arrest system include: an anchorage point, a body harness, deceleration devices such as, energy absorbing lanyards and retractable lanyards, and connectors such as non energy absorbing lanyards, rope grabs, and anchorage connectors.

37 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
When using personal fall arrest systems: If you fall, the impact force to the body has to be less than 1800 pounds, achieved by using shock absorbing lanyards and a harness Minimize fall distance, the maximum free fall distance can only be 6 feet There can not be any structures below in you fall distance Maximum weight of an individual w/tools is 310 pounds When using fall arrest equipment a person can not be subjected to more than 1800 lbs of force and this is achieved by using a body harness and an energy absorbing lanyard. You can not be exposed to a free fall of more than six feet and there must not be anything beneath you that you could strike. There are weight limitations. The weight range for users of personal fall arrest systems is pounds.

38 Fall Distances Free Fall Distance Deceleration Distance
The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. Deceleration Distance The distance between the location of an body harness attachment point at the moment of activation of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop. Free fall distance is the distance someone falls before the fall arrest equipment begins to engage. Deceleration distance is the distance someone falls once the fall arrest equipment engages to the point in which they come to a complete stop. Total fall distance is the sum of the free fall distance and the deceleration distance.

39 Minimizing Free Fall Distance
6’ Lanyard Length 3.5’ Deceleration Device Extended Lanyard Length Plus maximum 2’ extension (usually within inches) Tie to anchor above the D-ring Or use a retractable Persons using fall arrest equipment should always position their anchorage point above the D-ring to minimize the free fall distance. The illustration above demonstrates how minimizing the free fall distance can be achieved. The use of retractable lanyards is always preferred when using fall arrest equipment because the total fall distance is usually two feet or less. Using an anchorage above the D-ring and a standard lanyard may still allow an employee to fall a distance that may be difficult to rescue from. Using a retractable minimizes forces on the body, and may make rescue easier (and therefore more timely)

40 Calculating Total Fall Distance
This diagram shows the way to calculate the total fall distance. You add the length of the lanyard, plus the deceleration distance, plus the height of the worker (which generally is the height of the D ring and harness stretch), plus the safety factor. In the diagram the total fall distance would be calculated to eighteen and half feet.

41 Watch Swing Falls This worker is tied off using a retractable lifeline. There is a major swing fall potential if he fell to either side. Swing Fall When using retractable lanyards be aware of the hazard of swing falls. When the retractable lanyard is out, make sure you are not able to fall where the lanyard can not stop you from falling more the two feet.

42 Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Anchorage Body Connector Caribiners Harnesses Rope Grabs The photograph shows the basic components of a personal fall arrest system. Beam Wraps Lanyards Positioning

43 Anchorages Fall arrest anchor points must support 5000 lbs per employee attached Fall restraint anchor points must support at least 1000 lbs per employee attached Ask your supervisor, Senior Safety Officer, or the ESH–Section safety representatives if you need assistance in determining an adequate anchorage point Depending on the application and type of personal fall arrest system, the strength of the anchorage point can vary. When using fall arrest equipment where the is the potential to fall the anchorage point must withstand five thousand pounds of pull per employee. If two people are attached to the same anchorage point the strength must be at least ten thousand pounds. Anchorage point strengths for fall restraint is one thousand pounds, much less than the five thousand pounds required for fall arrest anchorage points. This is because when using fall restraint there in no danger of a fall. Remember, you can always contact an ESH representative for assistance in determining anchorage points.

44 Roof & Deck Anchors Wood Roof Anchor Permanent Anchors Metal Roof
Here are some pictures of different types of anchorage devices for roof and deck applications. You can only install these devices if you are qualified. Remember, the definition of qualified persons as defined in fall protection systems, is a person who has a recognized degree or professional certificate and extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field who is capable of design, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project, or product. Metal Roof Anchor

45 Use of Eye Bolts Rated for loading parallel to the bolt axis.
If wall mounted, the rating perpendicular to the axis must be good for 5,000 lbs. per employee Rated Eye bolts can be used for anchorage points but their design and application must be completed by a qualified person. Needed

46 Girder Grip Anchorage Rings
These attachments can be mounted through bolt holes on steel members. They are rated at 5,000 lbs. in all directions Manufactured anchorage rings or connectors are already designed and rated and can be used by anyone following the installation directions.

47 Removable Concrete Anchors
These attachments can be mounted in holes of concrete. They are rated at 5,000 lbs. in all directions Here is another type of manufactured anchorage ring that is already designed and rated and can be used by anyone following the installation directions.

48 Anchorage Connectors These type of connectors enable you to tie off to various types of anchorage points Anchorage connectors are designed to hook onto or wrap around structures or equipment. The structure or equipment you attach these type of connectors must be rated for five thousand pounds of static weight for fall arrest and one thousand pounds for fall restraint. Other things to consider are types of material and sharp edges that could create a hazard if a fall occurred. Over head locations are best for these connectors because it decreases the free fall distance.

49 Beam Clamps Beam clamps can make an effective anchorage when used properly, and with the correct lanyard TIGHT BEAM CLAMP PIN SET While you may not typical use beam clamps it is good to know how they are applied. What happens when the employee reaches the next joist? They need a second beamer to make the traverse over the joist end, otherwise will not be tied off 100% of the time. Also, some prefabricated building rafters/joists may not be suitable for the application of a beamer, as the flange is too thin to support the potential impact. Be sure pin is inserted full length and clamp is tight.

50 Horizontal Life Lines Provide maneuverability
Horizontal lifelines must be designed, installed, and used, under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two. There are limitations on how many people can be connected to a horizontal lifeline. Check with your supervisor or you ESH representative on any restrictions. Provide maneuverability Must be designed, installed and used under the guidance of a qualified person This could be interpreted as requiring the use of manufactured systems, which is recommended

51 Horizontal Line Engineering
72,000 lb 72,000 lb 5,000 lb 5,000 lb The diagram shows the different stresses on anchorage points for horizontal lifelines. The qualified person designing such systems need to consider many factors, including potential sag of the lifeline. Anchor stress depends on the sag angle of the line.

52 Line Stanchions The connection of the line stanchion to the flange must support the bending moment applied to the base. Lifeline stanchions also require special design considerations for a qualified person as indicated in this diagram.

53 Aerial Work Platform Anchorages
Use the manufacture’s designated anchorage points. Never use guardrails as anchorage points. When using articulating and or telescoping boom lifts fall restraint equipment is required. A full body harness with a 2-foot lanyard works as restraint device preventing the user from being thrown from the bucket or basket area.

54 Body Harness Need to be inspected before use by the worker, and at least annually (documented) by a Competent Person Harnesses should never be modified Do not write on or paint harnesses unless material is approved for use Should be taken out of service immediately if defective or exposed to an impact Body harnesses must be inspected by the user before use. A documented annual inspection by a competent person is required as well. It is the responsibility of each Division/ Section to perform these annual inspections on their equipment.

55 Harness Fitting Chest strap tightened at mid chest “D” ring between shoulder blades Proper snugness shoulder to hips Butt strap supports the load Leg straps snug but not binding A properly fitted harness is essential to minimize the shock to the body if you were exposed to a fall arrest. Harnesses do have limitations, if you are over three hundred ten pounds and under one hundred thirty pounds you will need specialized equipment. See your supervisor or your ESH representative for assistance if you do not fall within these parameters. Harnesses must be sized for the worker. Workers must weigh more than 130 lbs. and less than 300lbs.

56 Harness Pressure Points
Spread load across butt strap and belt strap if on the harness If you are suspended by your fall arrest equipment you must be aware of the potential hazards of orthostatic intolerance. Excessive pressure from the straps can cut off blood flow to the legs and cause permanent damage after hanging for fifteen minutes. Some harnesses are equipped with step in straps designed to relieve these pressure points if a worker is hanging. Be sure to know how to use this type of equipment if you have it. Excess pressure here can cut blood flow to the legs Some studies have indicated permanent damage to the lower extremities when the worker hangs for more than twenty (20) minutes

57 Deceleration Devices Any mechanism with a maximum length of 3.5 feet, such as a rope grab, rip stitch lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, self-retracting lifelines, etc. which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest. Deceleration devices, also known as shock absorbing or energy absorbing lanyards are designed to slow the free fall before coming to a stop thereby reducing the impact on the body. Even with these type of lanyards the force on the body can be up to eighteen hundred pounds.

58 Lanyards A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline or anchorage. Must not be tied back to themselves unless specifically designed for such use Should have the appropriate clip for the intended anchorage points Do not knot or wrap around sharp objects Only use the lanyard in accordance with the manufactures recommendations. Do not tie the lanyard back to itself unless it is design to do so. The clips must be designed for the type of anchorage point you are using. And as with any synthetic material equipment, do not use against sharp edges or objects.

59 Lanyards Various types of energy absorbing lanyards
Here are a few types of energy absorbing lanyards

60 Retractable Lifelines
Deceleration devices containing a drum-wound line which can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall. Do not use with energy absorbing lanyards. Retractable lifelines are devices design to lock on the onset of a fall. It works similar to a vehicle safety belt in that it locks when the line is pulled at a rate faster than normal movement. The length of retractables vary so you must be aware of the potential swing fall hazards since you can have many feet of line extended out. Never use energy absorbing lanyards with this type of equipment.

61 Lifelines A component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage. The lifeline is used to connect a personal fall arrest system (consisting of a harness and deceleration lanyard) to an anchor point that cannot be reached by the short lanyard. The lanyard/lifeline connection point in a sense becomes the anchor point. The lifeline is not intended to stretch to add to the length of a fall. The lifeline can be made of a flexible line such as a rope or cable, or it can be made of a strap or webbing material. Lifelines can hang vertically from an anchor point and horizontally between two anchor points.

62 Positioning Systems Positioning devices provide hands-free work
Additional fall protection may be required to move or access Positioning systems are design for use on vertical surfaces. It gives the worker the ability to work with both hands while be suspended with no free fall hazard. Typically this application is used in vertical rebar work but can be used in other situations where vertical access is required.

63 Restraint Devices Provide access but prevent the fall
Limit anchorage requirement to 1000 lbs May be more suitable for loading areas, scaffold erection and dismantling Should be installed and used under the supervision of a Competent Person If guardrails are not feasible then fall restraint is the next best way to work if you are exposed to a fall hazard. Restraint systems must be installed and used under the supervision of a competent person. Because no free fall hazard is possible in restraint systems, the anchorage point requirement is one thousand pounds.

64 Fall Restraint Restraint Line Edge
Fall restraint assumes the employee cannot reach the edge, they are basically on a short leash. If the employee can fall over the edge, then a personal fall arrest system must be used. This is how a fall restraint system should be designed.

65 Use of Restraint Cables
Example of restraint cables used during deck anchoring. Here are two photographs of actual applications of a fall restraint system. RESTRAINT CABLE

66 Planning For A Rescue Whenever working with the potential of hanging by a harness, a rescue plan must be in effect. A written Hazard Analysis must be done and employees must be trained on the plan. Whenever working at heights where there is a potential of hanging from a harness after a fall, a written hazard analysis is required. In the HA, there must be a rescue plan to retrieve someone hanging from a harness within a short period of time.

67 Planning For A Rescue The rescue plan must be written in the hazard analysis The goal is to rescue the employee as soon as possible and limit the hanging time to no more than fifteen minutes. Plan for a worker that is unconscious. Ensure all the rescue equipment in the vicinity Call x3131whenever someone has been in a fall arrest situation The goal of any rescue is to limit the hanging/suspension time of the fallen employee. With a harness, the suspension time is a maximum of 15 minutes, less is desirable. The plan should address the fact the worker may be unconscious. Ensure all the rescue equipment is in place or ready to be put in place. Notify the Fermilab Fire Department prior to starting work so they can be prepared to respond. Have them assist you in developing a plan if needed. Ensure everyone is aware of the plan.

68 Fall Protection For any additional information or questions regarding this presentation: (888) If you need any additional information or assistance please contact Rafael Coll or John Cassidy of the ESH Section .

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