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IB History US Government Origins of American Government.

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Presentation on theme: "IB History US Government Origins of American Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 IB History US Government Origins of American Government

2 2nd Continental Congress 1st CC met in response to the Intolerable Acts. King Geo. III declares colonies in rebellion(prepares for war) 2nd CC- Met in Philly assumes power of a central gov. J. Hancock in charge. They org an army, issue $, made G. Wash commander of army. 1st CC met in response to the Intolerable Acts. King Geo. III declares colonies in rebellion(prepares for war) 2nd CC- Met in Philly assumes power of a central gov. J. Hancock in charge. They org an army, issue $, made G. Wash commander of army.

3 American Revolutionary War Declaration of Independence: led by T. Jefferson. July 4, 1776 colonies officially declare their independence from G. Brit. King Geo. III did not approve. Inspired by J. Locke and other Enlightenment philosophers. Justified Revolution 3 parts: A. Stated Purpose. B. Specific complaints against the King. C. Statement of Determination to separate peacefully. Declaration of Independence: led by T. Jefferson. July 4, 1776 colonies officially declare their independence from G. Brit. King Geo. III did not approve. Inspired by J. Locke and other Enlightenment philosophers. Justified Revolution 3 parts: A. Stated Purpose. B. Specific complaints against the King. C. Statement of Determination to separate peacefully.

4 The Articles of Confederation 1777 continued the basic format of the 2nd CC. Confederation = a league of friendship Consisted of a Unicameral Legislature w no executive or judicial branch. 1 state = 1 vote. Reps chosen by State Legislatures continued the basic format of the 2nd CC. Confederation = a league of friendship Consisted of a Unicameral Legislature w no executive or judicial branch. 1 state = 1 vote. Reps chosen by State Legislatures.

5 The Articles of Confederation Powers given to Gov. Make war and peace Send-receive ambassadors Enter treaties Raise a Navy Maintain an Army Appoint military officers Fix wts. & measurements Regulate Indian Affairs Est. a Post Office Settle disputes btwn. States Powers given to Gov. Make war and peace Send-receive ambassadors Enter treaties Raise a Navy Maintain an Army Appoint military officers Fix wts. & measurements Regulate Indian Affairs Est. a Post Office Settle disputes btwn. States

6 The Articles of Confederation Weaknesses of Articles: No pwr to tax No pwr to regulate trade Could not enforce laws onto States Needed 9/13 states for approval 13/13 to Amend No Executive Branch No National Court Weaknesses of Articles: No pwr to tax No pwr to regulate trade Could not enforce laws onto States Needed 9/13 states for approval 13/13 to Amend No Executive Branch No National Court

7 The Articles of Confederation Achievement of Articles: Fair policy for development of lands west of App. Mts. NW Ordinance 1787 (Developed new States including Ohio) Peace treaty w/ G. Brit. Development of Department-led to cabinet. States could not discriminate against citizens from other states. Achievement of Articles: Fair policy for development of lands west of App. Mts. NW Ordinance 1787 (Developed new States including Ohio) Peace treaty w/ G. Brit. Development of Department-led to cabinet. States could not discriminate against citizens from other states.

8 The Articles of Confederation Soon after Rev. War issues arose btwn states. Issues over money and lack thereof made the Articles fragile. Gov. could not afford to maintain an Army Shays Rebellion illustrated the financial issue and military. Leaders feared an armed rebellion. Changes needed to be made. Soon after Rev. War issues arose btwn states. Issues over money and lack thereof made the Articles fragile. Gov. could not afford to maintain an Army Shays Rebellion illustrated the financial issue and military. Leaders feared an armed rebellion. Changes needed to be made.

9 The Road to the Constitution The Annapolis Convention: 1785 G. Wash invited reps from Maryland and Virginia to Mt. Vernon to discuss issues btwn the states. This inspired Va to call all the States together in Annapolis However, only 5 states sent delegates A. Hamilton called for a Constitutional Convention to fix the Articles of Confederation to be held in Philly. The Annapolis Convention: 1785 G. Wash invited reps from Maryland and Virginia to Mt. Vernon to discuss issues btwn the states. This inspired Va to call all the States together in Annapolis However, only 5 states sent delegates A. Hamilton called for a Constitutional Convention to fix the Articles of Confederation to be held in Philly.

10 The Constitutional Convention Began May 25, All states except R.I. 55 total delegates. They chose G. Wash to preside over the meetings. Each state had one vote. There could be no meeting unless 7 of the 13 present. Goal: to revise the Articles of Confed. Meetings held in private session, not open to media or public. Wanted to delegates to speak freely. James Madison- Father of the Constitution Needed 9/13 to ratify the new written law. Began May 25, All states except R.I. 55 total delegates. They chose G. Wash to preside over the meetings. Each state had one vote. There could be no meeting unless 7 of the 13 present. Goal: to revise the Articles of Confed. Meetings held in private session, not open to media or public. Wanted to delegates to speak freely. James Madison- Father of the Constitution Needed 9/13 to ratify the new written law.

11 The Constitutional Convention Decisions and Compromises: The Virginia Plan: Strong natl legislature bicameral. Leg power to declare laws unconstitutional, legislature to choose executive, and a judiciary to be appt by legislature. The New Jersey Plan: a unicameral leg. 1 state=1 vote. A weak Exec. Branch w/ more than 1 man in control elected by Congress, judiciary appt by exec. Big Debate: Number of reps per state?? Equal or population. Decisions and Compromises: The Virginia Plan: Strong natl legislature bicameral. Leg power to declare laws unconstitutional, legislature to choose executive, and a judiciary to be appt by legislature. The New Jersey Plan: a unicameral leg. 1 state=1 vote. A weak Exec. Branch w/ more than 1 man in control elected by Congress, judiciary appt by exec. Big Debate: Number of reps per state?? Equal or population.

12 The Constitutional Convention The Connecticut Compromise: Called by Roger Sherman. Legislature to have two bodies: Upper House and Lower House. All states have equal (2) reps in Senate. Lower House to be based on state population. All money bills begin in House of Rep. State legislature to appoint Senate. Debate: What constitutes a citizen? 3/5 Compromise: Slaves to be counted as pop. But only 60% of them The Connecticut Compromise: Called by Roger Sherman. Legislature to have two bodies: Upper House and Lower House. All states have equal (2) reps in Senate. Lower House to be based on state population. All money bills begin in House of Rep. State legislature to appoint Senate. Debate: What constitutes a citizen? 3/5 Compromise: Slaves to be counted as pop. But only 60% of them

13 Ratifying the Constitution For constitution to become law, 9 of 13 states had to agree. June 21, Not all agreed w/ the final document and more debate occurs. Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist: Federalist- Favored the constitution as it was. Supported by merchants and other in cities and coastal areas. Argued w/o strong central gov anarchy would ensue. Needed protection from outside enemies and only a strong natl gov can provide. For constitution to become law, 9 of 13 states had to agree. June 21, Not all agreed w/ the final document and more debate occurs. Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist: Federalist- Favored the constitution as it was. Supported by merchants and other in cities and coastal areas. Argued w/o strong central gov anarchy would ensue. Needed protection from outside enemies and only a strong natl gov can provide.

14 Ratifying the Constitution The Anit-Federalist: Opposed the constitution as it was. Supported by inland farmers and laborers. Criticized it was written in private. Took too much power from states and lacked a Bill of Rights. Argued w/o Bill, states gov could take your rights away. Patrick Henry a leading Anti-Fed.

15 The Federalist Papers To gain popular support, a series of essays were published in NY by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. Later, these essays collected in a book. With the compromise of adding a Bill of Rights, the Constitution is ratified.


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