2 3 Concepts Brought from England 1) Ordered Gov’t> Structure of political machine> Example: Sheriff, Coroner, Justice of the Peace, Counties, Townships, Etc2) Limited Gov’t> Gov’t is not all powerful> Magna Carta – people enable the gov’t(…right?)3) Representative Gov’t> People have a voice in gov’t thru representatives> Why use representatives?
3 Political Timeline 1643 – New England Confederation 1754 – Albany Plan What is a “confederation?”Main purpose was a protection against the Indians1754 – Albany PlanBen Franklin's Idea: Use delegates from each colonyMain Purpose was securing trade, protection against French and Indians1765 – Stamp Act Congress“No taxation without representation”9 of the 13 Colonies were involved1st time the majority stood against the British
4 Political Timeline, con’t 1774 – 1st Continental Congress12 of the 13 colonies attended (Georgia did not)Main purpose: response to the Intolerable Acts1775 – 2nd Continental CongressALL 13 colonies were there1st form of National Government1776 – Declaration of IndependenceFormal documentation that stated the obvious“We hold these truths…”
5 The Declaration of Independence What are the truths that are “self-evident?”What rights are “inalienable?”Where does government derive their “just powers?”Why did the colonist oppose king-appointed and paid judges?Did the writers really mean ALL MEN are “created equal?”
6 Probably have a quiz soon 10 questions or so, over the notes…
7 The Critical Period The 1st and 2nd Cont. Congresses had no legal base The 1st attempt to “get something on paper” was the Articles of Confederation“Rough Draft” of the ConstitutionArticles of Confederation created a strong state gov’t and a weak national gov’t
8 8 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 1 vote for each state, no matter the sizeNo taxation at allNo regulation of commerce or tradeNo executive branch (president)No court systemAll states must agree for an amendment9/13 majority to pass laws“Firm league of friendship”
9 Constitutional Convention May 1787 12 of 13 states show up in Philly (no RI)55 guys (average age 42)These men became known as the “Framers of the Constitution”The Constitution is sometimes called – “a bundle of compromises” here’s why…
10 Compromises Representation New Jersey Plan – representation based on statehoodVirginia Plan – representation based on populationEventual Settlement – Connecticut CompromiseBicameral (2 houses): Upper House based statehood known as the Senate, Lower House based on population known as the House of Representatives
11 Compromises Slavery 3/5s Compromise 3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted toward the population13th amendment makes this nullDoes this make any since?
12 Compromises Trade Congress could not tax exports What are exports? Imports?Congress could not mess with the slave trade for a minimum of 20 yearsCheck PointName three of the problems with the Articles…
13 Ratification The Constitution was completed on Sept 17, 1787 39 names signed the documentThe document was printed and circulated around the 13 states, so that a debate and ratification could eventually take place.9 States were necessary in order for the Constitution to be “official.”
14 Two Groups Evolve Federalists Favored ratification (liked the Constitution)James Madison & Co.Stressed the weaknesses of the ArticlesStronger Central Gov’tAnti-FederalistsAgainst RatificationPatrick Henry & Co.Stressed the weakness of the ConstitutionStronger State Gov’tWanted Bill of RightsQuick ReviewWhat are the 3 compromises that were necessary to get a Constitution out to the people?
15 Ratification Process ___ were needed to ratify. Anybody? By June 1788 they had the nine needed statesStill they waited to make it official…why, you ask…Because New York and Virginia had not passed itWhat’s the big deal about these two states?By July of 1788 these two made the total 11 of the 13
16 Couple of other things… James Madison – Father of the ConstitutionIn order to get the state of New York to ratify - The Federalist Papers were circulated (Hamilton, Madison, Jay)George Washington elected in April 1789