Presentation on theme: "The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Chapter 5 Sections 1 - 3."— Presentation transcript:
The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Chapter 5 Sections 1 - 3
Key Ideas After the Revolution the 13 states ratify the Articles of Confederation In 1787 the Constitutional Convention meets to revise the government After the Constitutional Convention it is left to the 13 states to ratify the new Constitution
The Articles of Confederation Ratified in 1781 Weak Central Government Most power resides with the states Congress could Wage / Declare War Raise Armies Sign Treaties w/foreign powers Congress could not Impose taxes Regulate Trade
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The New Territories Congress appointed Governor & 3 Judges After 5000 adult males settle Those 5000 elect a territorial legislature After population of territory reaches 60,000 The territory could apply for statehood
Federal Government Lacks Authority The Treaty of 1783 calls for payment of British merchant loans No way for new government to enforce this British merchants are angry British refuse to leave American land Spain and Georgia are in a border dispute Spain blocks access to Mississippi River Federal Government has no way of forcing Georgia to settle dispute – trade suffers
Shay’s Rebellion 1787 Shays Rebellion led by former Rev. War soldier Daniel Shay Farmers in Mass. angry about taxes attack Mass. Govt. officials Property owners worry that a weak central govt. cannot protect their rights Merchants, landowners, & wealthy want stronger central govt.
All call for CHANGE 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia Goal is to revise Articles of Confederation George Washington chosen as presiding officer 55 delegates
The Virginia Plan Do away with Articles of Confederation 3 Branches of Government Legislative Branch has 2 Houses Upper House = Senate Lower House = House of Reps Number of Reps for both houses dependent on state’s population Smaller states oppose this plan – why ?
The New Jersey Plan Rework the Articles of Confederation 3 Branches of Government Legislative Branch has 1 House Number of Reps. is equal for all states regardless of population Large states oppose this plan
The Great Compromise Senate = 2 Senators from each state House of Reps = based on Population
3/5 ths Compromise Slave States want slaves counted for population / representation Northern States say then they should count for taxes as well Compromise - 1 slave = 3/5 th of a white person
Federalists v. Anti-federalists Federalists – Strong Central Govt. Includes landowners, merchants, artisans, farmers that rely on interstate trade Important players: Alexander Hamilton James Madison Anti-Federalists Strong State Govt. Afraid of loss of Rights Included western farmers, people deeply in debt Important Players: Sam Adams Patrick Henry
The Federalist Papers 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, & John Jay Explained why the new Constitution would be good & how it would work Still referred to today by judges, lawyers, historians, & law makers to interpret what the Founding Fathers meant
Fight for Ratification 9 of 13 states had to ratify Constitution for it to become law Delegates went back to their states to present it to state govts. Dec 1787 & Jan 1788 DE, PA, NJ, GA, & CT ratify Sam Adams protests and threatens to stop ratification in MA He wants promises against a loss of rights Federalists promise specific mention of rights in the Constitution after ratification S. Adams agrees Bill of Rights become the first 10 Amendments
Fight for Ratification June 1788 MD, SC, NH, & MA ratify This makes 9 of the 13 states… BUT
Federalists want to be SURE NY & VA still needed! But WHY?
Virginia & New York Two of the largest states NY is wealthy Merchants Trade Capitalists & Entrepreneurs Virginia Many influential Patriots Washington, Jefferson, Henry, etc. Washington elected as first President by a small group of electors in 1789 Last state to ratify is Rhode Island in 1790