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Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and how US Constitution corrected them.

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Presentation on theme: "Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and how US Constitution corrected them."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and how US Constitution corrected them

2 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses No power to tax No national executive Unicameral legislature No judicial/national court No checks & balances! Weaknesses No power to tax No national executive Unicameral legislature No judicial/national court No checks & balances! Result No money Federal laws not enforced One vote per state unequal representation Problems with interstate relations Result No money Federal laws not enforced One vote per state unequal representation Problems with interstate relations

3 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses No regulation of commerce No power to maintain army States more power than national gov’t Need 9/13 to pass a law & unanimous consent to amend Weaknesses No regulation of commerce No power to maintain army States more power than national gov’t Need 9/13 to pass a law & unanimous consent to amend Results Economic quarrels among states & foreign trade hurt No national defense Almost no unity among states Impossible to accomplish Results Economic quarrels among states & foreign trade hurt No national defense Almost no unity among states Impossible to accomplish

4 Other Problems under Articles of Confederation States were issuing their own paper money but inflation soon made it worthless Nat’l government couldn’t settle disputes between states Post war depression hurt small businesses and farmers which left farmers unable to pay debts. In Mass. farmers attacked courthouses to prevent judges from foreclosing on farmers – Shay’s Rebellion States were issuing their own paper money but inflation soon made it worthless Nat’l government couldn’t settle disputes between states Post war depression hurt small businesses and farmers which left farmers unable to pay debts. In Mass. farmers attacked courthouses to prevent judges from foreclosing on farmers – Shay’s Rebellion

5 SHAYS’ REBELLION Angry farmers in Mass. took law into their own hands- violated property rights of others Congress had no real power to help stop the rebellion This caused concern by property owners in other states revise Led to calling of a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation

6 The Constitutional Convention started May 25, 1787 met at Independence Hall, Philadelphia An extraordinary group of delegates 55 men Well-educated Lawyers, merchants, college presidents, doctors, generals, governors, and planters with considerable political experience Rhode Island did not go…they did not want a stronger central government

7 The Boss Who was chosen to preside over the convention? George Washington Respected for his leadership during the Rev. War

8 Procedures of the Convention Each state was only allowed one vote Majority votes from all states made decisions All discussions were a secret! Why…?? This way, delegates could speak freely, without worry about how the public would react Each state was only allowed one vote Majority votes from all states made decisions All discussions were a secret! Why…?? This way, delegates could speak freely, without worry about how the public would react

9 Two Opposing Plans VS. Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan

10 The Virginia Plan  presented by James Madison  called for 3 branches of government  bicameral Congress (2 houses), both determined by population  Favored big states b/c of population  presented by James Madison  called for 3 branches of government  bicameral Congress (2 houses), both determined by population  Favored big states b/c of population

11 The New Jersey Plan  presented by William Patterson  also called for 3 branches of gov’t  Unicameral legislature (1 house) with equal representation for each state  favored by smaller states b/c equal  presented by William Patterson  also called for 3 branches of gov’t  Unicameral legislature (1 house) with equal representation for each state  favored by smaller states b/c equal

12 The GREAT COMPROMISE Roger Sherman of Connecticut comes up with the solution… a compromise to please large & small states  Lower House  House of Representatives  Determined by population  2 year term of office  Favored larger states  Upper House – Senate – Equal representation (2 from each state) – 6 year term of office – Favored smaller states Connecticut Compromise also known as the Connecticut Compromise Roger Sherman of Connecticut comes up with the solution… a compromise to please large & small states  Lower House  House of Representatives  Determined by population  2 year term of office  Favored larger states  Upper House – Senate – Equal representation (2 from each state) – 6 year term of office – Favored smaller states Connecticut Compromise also known as the Connecticut Compromise

13 use of population to determine representation led to another debate How will slaves be counted in population? at that time, there were 550,000 slaves mostly in the South Southern states wanted slaves counted to increase their population & reps in CongressSouthern states wanted slaves counted to increase their population & reps in Congress Northern states did not want slaves counted since they were not citizensNorthern states did not want slaves counted since they were not citizens

14 3/5 COMPROMISE  Conflict over counting slaves in population was settled by 3/5 Compromise  Every 5 slaves would count as only 3 people  This formula was used for determining representation in Congress & figuring taxes  Conflict over counting slaves in population was settled by 3/5 Compromise  Every 5 slaves would count as only 3 people  This formula was used for determining representation in Congress & figuring taxes

15 HOW TO CHOOSE THE PRESIDENT? Selecting the Chief Executive also created debate at the Convention Some delegates felt Congress should choose President What’s wrong with this plan? Others felt vote of all citizens should choose President What’s wrong with this plan? the Electoral College Finally compromised by creating the Electoral College the Electoral College How does the Electoral College work?

16 Correcting Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Weakness No power to tax No national executive 1 vote per state No way to settle disputes Weakness No power to tax No national executive 1 vote per state No way to settle disputes Solution Article I sec 8 Congress has powers to…. Article II Executive Branch- Presidential powers Article I Bicameral Congress- representation Article III Federal Court- Supreme Court Solution Article I sec 8 Congress has powers to…. Article II Executive Branch- Presidential powers Article I Bicameral Congress- representation Article III Federal Court- Supreme Court

17 Correcting Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses No regulation of commerce No national defense States more power than national gov’t Need 2/3 vote to pass a law & unanimous vote to amend Weaknesses No regulation of commerce No national defense States more power than national gov’t Need 2/3 vote to pass a law & unanimous vote to amend Solutions Article I sec 8 foreign & interstate commerce Article I sec 8 create an army & navy Article VI Constitution & Federal Govt are supreme Articles I & V I = majority for laws V = easier to amend- not unanimous Solutions Article I sec 8 foreign & interstate commerce Article I sec 8 create an army & navy Article VI Constitution & Federal Govt are supreme Articles I & V I = majority for laws V = easier to amend- not unanimous

18 once Constitution was written in Philadelphia, what was required to replace the Articles Look at Article VII. “The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.”

19 Federalists & Anti-Federalists Ratification of Constitution created conflict between Federalists & Anti-Federalists FEDERALISTS Wanted the Constitution to be ratified Thought nation needed stronger national gov’t Felt country couldn’t survive under Art. of Confederation Leaders were: John Adams Alexander Hamilton James Madison writers of the Federalist Papers FEDERALISTS Wanted the Constitution to be ratified Thought nation needed stronger national gov’t Felt country couldn’t survive under Art. of Confederation Leaders were: John Adams Alexander Hamilton James Madison writers of the Federalist Papers ANTI-FEDERALISTS Opposed to ratifying the Constitution Feared giving away state powers to federal gov’t Preferred to keep the Art. of Confederation Leaders were: Sam Adams Patrick Henry James Monroe Bill of Rights Were finally appeased by Bill of Rights ANTI-FEDERALISTS Opposed to ratifying the Constitution Feared giving away state powers to federal gov’t Preferred to keep the Art. of Confederation Leaders were: Sam Adams Patrick Henry James Monroe Bill of Rights Were finally appeased by Bill of Rights


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