2What does it mean to have “personality”? Researchers have developed many ways of assessing personality, but even if we do gain an understanding of how we are, the question of why we are that way remains.Ex. We can gain an understanding of HOW (shy, mean, nice) we are, the question of WHY (what caused it) we are that way remains.
3Personality TraitsPersonality is the collection of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are associated with a personPersonality traits are characteristic behaviors and feelings that are consistent and long lastingPersonality States are temporary patterns of behavior and feelings that may arise in a specific situationPersonality is a construct, like consciousness.
4The Big Five TraitsCurrent belief; all personality traits derive from five basic personality traits
5O C E A N penness xtraversion euroticism greeableness onscientiousness This is an example of a mnemonic device used to help remember (retrieval)
6Criticisms of Big FiveSome believe that more than five basic traits are needed to account for the wide personality differences among peopleSome believe that five traits is too much. Openness correlates with extraversion and can be combined.Regardless of how many traits you believe exist, traits are always fairly consistent throughout life and states are just temporary patterns of behavior
7Psychodynamic Theories Many exist; they all emphasize unconscious motives and desires, as well as the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality.Psychoanalysis involves analyzing thoughts and feelings to reveal what is going on beneath the surface (unconscious)Sigmund Freud’s Theory of PsychoanalysisFreud based his theory off of observing patients.
8Theory is based on impulses and needs of the unconscious and the conflict with societal demands to restrain those impulses.The Conscious, The Preconscious, and the UnconsciousConscious contains all the information that a person is paying attention to at any given time.Preconscious contains all information outside of a person’s attention but readily available if needed.Unconscious contains thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories of which people have no awareness but can influence their day-to-day lives.
10Freud believed that information in the unconscious emerges in slips of the tongue, jokes, dreams, illness symptoms, etc. These are called Freudian Slips.To demonstrate the possible existence of the unconscious, break the class up into groups of three, and have each group choose a theme – for example, “The time I was in the hospital”, or “My most embarrassing moment,”. Two members from each group will recount real experiences on the group’s theme, the third member will tell a lie. Each story should last about a minute. Allow students some time to prepare their stories. Have students present their stories and have the class vote on who is lying out of the group. The point is that the liar cannot successfully lie; the unconscious will slip out.
11The Id, Ego, and Superego (3 components of personality) Responsible for survivalUnconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle, the drive to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.Seeks immediate gratification of impulses (what feels good)The Id would be like the “devil” sitting on your shoulder
12Responsible for society’s rules of behavior (moral standards) SuperegoResponsible for society’s rules of behavior (moral standards)Operates on all three levels of awareness, and is based on morality principle, must follow moral standards and rules and breaking them causes guilt.Ask students what would happen to a person with a weak superego? Possible answers – no stopping id, self-centered, only worry about their own needsAsk students what would happen to a person with a strong superego? Possible answers – driven by morals and guilt, just thinking bad thoughts would cause guilt and stressThe superego is like the “angel” or police force.The superego would let us die rather than break a rule.
13EgoManages the conflict between the id and superego. Balances our desires with the demands of reality.Operates on all three levels of awareness, and is based on the reality principle, the awareness that gratification of impulses has to be delayed in order to accommodate the demands of the real world.Students can form groups and make skits in which they role play the id, ego, and superego. Have them do their skit and then have students decide who is the id, ego, superego.Students can also create an illustration demonstrating the id, ego, and superego.
15Defense MechanismsConflict – Freud believed Id, Ego, Superego are in constant conflictAnxiety – arises when ego cannot balance id & superegoRather than face conflict and anxiety, people deceive themselves into believing nothing is wrong by using defense mechanisms, behaviors that protect people from anxiety
16Types of defense mechanisms Repression – keeping unpleasant thoughts, memories, and feelings shut up in the unconsciousReaction Formation - replacing an unacceptable feeling or urge with its oppositeProjection – attributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts or feelings to someone else
17Displacement – transferring feelings about a person or event onto someone or something else. Denial – refusing to acknowledge something that is obvious to othersRegression – reverting to a more immature state of psychological development
18Freud’s Psychosexual stages of development Freud believed that personality was fixed by about age 5.Freud believed adult’s psychological problems have their roots in early childhood and can be traced to unresolved conflicts then. When a conflict is not adequately resolved, an individual becomes fixated at that stage of development.
19Oedipus complex – a male child’s sexual desire for his mother and hostility toward his father, whom he considers to be a rival for his mother’s love.A male child who sees a naked female for the first time believes that her penis has been cut off. The child fears that his father will do the same to him for desiring his mother – a fear called castration anxiety. Because of this fear, the child represses his desires for his mother and begins to identify with his father. This illustrates the emergence of the superego.
20Carl Jung’s Analytical Psychology Freud drew criticism for his focus on children’s sexuality. Some his followers broke away. These theorists are called neo-Freudians.Carl Jung’s Analytical PsychologyJung was a neo-Freudian.Believed unconscious has two layers. The personal conscious, which resembled Freud’s idea (pleasure principle), and the collective unconscious, which contains universal inherited (handed down from generation to generation) memories.Personal unconscious – repressed feelings and thoughts developed during life
21Jung called these universal (common) memories archetypes Jung called these universal (common) memories archetypes. Archetypes are images or thoughts that have the same meaning for all human beings. Jung believed these archetypes controlled our behavior rather than a pleasure seeking unconscious (Freud’s idea).In trying to fit to these archetypes we develop a persona, or a mask that we wear to hide our true feelings and try to fit what it is we believe we are to be.
22Alfred Adler’s Theory on Personality All people, especially children, have feelings of inferiority. Children are driven by these inner feelings of inferiority to adapt and develop skills.However, some people suffer from an exaggerated sense of inferiority, or an inferiority complex.These people may try to make themselves look better and dominate and control others to avoid their own feelings of inferiority. Ex. school bully
23Criticisms of Psychodynamic Theories There is no proof that there is an unconscious that controls us against our will (it is a construct)Jung’s theory isn’t discussed much in psychology anymore, but we do know that animals do inherit certain broad rules of behavior
24Behaviorist TheoriesBehaviorists study only observable behavior. Their explanations of personality focus on learning.
25B.F. Skinner’s IdeasPersonality arises from Operant conditioningYou make decisions based on reinforcement and punishment. Behaviors that have positive consequences increase, while behaviors with negatives consequences decreaseEnvironment determines behavior
26Albert Bandura’s Ideas Social learning/Observational learning – people learn behaviors (and therefore personality) by watching othersBandura criticized Skinner for not acknowledging people’s ability to thinkCriticisms of Behavioral ApproachesTheories shortchange humans ability to thinkEarly theories in this area focused on our acts of behaviors as if we were robots
27Humanistic TheoriesFocus on human’s ability to think consciously and rationally, to control impulses, and to achieve full potentialPeople are responsible for actions and have free will to change themOptimistic perspective of human nature
28Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs All of us have inherited something unique, and if the environment will allow it, we have the opportunity to become great. To be great it to realize your full potential (self-actualization).We satisfy basic needs moving up the hierarchy to reach the top (self-actualization)
29Carl Roger’s Person-Centered Theory Believed that the biggest problem that a person faced was living up to the ideal self (as close to perfection as we will come). Believed this shapes a persons personalityWhen we have united what we should be with what we are, we have become a fully functioning individual
30Criticisms of Humanistic Theories Too naively optimistic and fail to provide insight into the evil side of human natureToo simple and vague to account very well for the great variety of human personality
31Measuring Personality Doctors, researchers, and employers use personality assessments for a variety of reasonsClinical psychologists use assessments for diagnosing psychological disordersMental health providers use tests to decide how best to counsel people about normal problems of daily living
32Some organizations use tests to select personnel to hire (not so much anymore) Researchers use them to study personality traits
333 ways of assessing personality – Objective tests, projective tests, assessment centers paper-and-pen tests that require people to answer questions about their typical behaviorsMMPI-2 – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – 567 questions divided into groups. People answer true, false, cannot say.Originally developed to help clinical psychologists diagnose psychological disorders
34Projective TestsRequire subjects to respond to pictures and phrases that can be interpreted in many different ways.Rorschach Test – series of ten inkblots that subjects look at and determine what they seeThe Rorschach is currently the second most commonly used test in forensic assessment, after the MMPIOriginally created by Hermann Rorschach in 1921, the scoring system was improved after his death
35(TAT) Thematic Apperception Test – series of pictures containing a variety of characters and scenes. Subjects make up stories about each picture.Its adherents claim that it taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality, motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy, and problem-solving abilities.In the case of adults and adolescents of average intelligence, a subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture, including:what has led up to the event shownwhat is happening at the momentwhat the characters are feeling and thinking, andwhat the outcome of the story was.TAT was developed during the 1930sDeclining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test is based has caused the TAT to be criticised as false or outdated by many professional psychologists
36Assessment CentersAllow psychologists to assess personality in specific situations.