4 Freud's Early Exploration into the Unconscious Used hypnosis and free association (relax and say it all) to delve into unconscious.Mapped out the “mental dominoes” of the patients past in a process he called psychoanalysis.
6 IdUnconscious energy that drives us to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives.Id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
7 Superego Part of personality that represents our internalized ideals. Standards of judgment or our morals.
8 Ego The boss “executive” of the conscious. Its job is to mediate the desires of the Id and Superego.Called the “reality principle”.
9 Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development Freud believed that your personality developed in your childhood.Mostly from unresolved problems in the early childhood.Believed that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages.The id focuses it’s libido (sexual energy) on a different erogenous zone.
10 Oral Stage 0-18 months Pleasure center is on the mouth. Sucking, biting and chewing.
11 Anal Stage 18-36 months Pleasure focuses on bladder and bowel control. Controlling ones life and independence.Anal retentive
12 Phallic Stage 3-6 years Pleasure zone is the genitals. Coping with incestuous feelings.Oedipus and Electra complexes.
13 Latency Stage6- pubertyDormant sexual feeling.Cooties stage.
14 Genital StagePuberty to death.Maturation of sexual interests.
15 FixationA lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage.Where conflicts were unresolved.Orally fixated people may need to chain smoke or chew gum.Or denying the dependence by acting tough or being very sarcastic.Anally fixated people can either be anal expulsive or anal retentive.
16 Defense MechanismsThe ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by distorting reality.Never aware they are occurring.Seven major types.
17 Repression The Mac Daddy defense mechanism. Push or banish anxiety driven thought deep into unconscious.Why we do not remember lusting after our parents.
18 RegressionWhen faced with anxiety the person retreats to a more infantile stage.Thumb sucking on the first day of school.
19 Reaction FormationEgo switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites.Being mean to someone you have a crush on.
20 ProjectionDisguise your own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.Thinking that your spouse wants to cheat on you when it is you that really want to cheat.
21 RationalizationOffers self-adjusting explanations in place of real, more threatening reasons for your actions.You don’t get into a college and say, “I really did not want to go there it was too far away!!”
22 Displacement Shifts the unacceptable impulses towards a safer outlet. Instead of yelling at a teacher, you will take anger out on a friend by peeing on his car).
23 SublimationRe-channel their unacceptable impulses towards more acceptable or socially approved activities.Channel feeling of homosexuality into aggressive sports play.
24 How do we assess the unconscious? We can use hypnosis or free association.But more often we use projective tests.
25 Projective Tests A personality test. Provides an ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.Examples Are:
26 TAT Thematic Apperception Test A projective test which people express their inner feelings through stories they make about ambiguous scenes
33 Neo-FreudiansPsychologists that took some premises from Freud and built upon them.Carl JungKaren HorneyAlfred Adler
34 Alfred Adler Childhood is important to personality. But focus should be on social factors- not sexual ones.Our behavior is driven by our efforts to conquer inferiority and feel superior.Inferiority Complex
35 Karen HorneyChildhood anxiety is caused by a dependent child’s feelings of helplessness.This triggers our desire for love and security.Fought against Freud’s “penis envy” concept.
36 Carl Jung Less emphasis on social factors. Focused on the unconscious. We all have a collective unconscious: a shared/inherited well of memory traces from our species history.