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Elements of Personality

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of Personality"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements of Personality
Characteristics aspects of personality Consistent must occur repeatedly in a variety of situations Unique characteristics of personality combine in unmatched manner

2 Personality Traits General ways of behaving that characterize an individual tendency to react to a situation in a way that remains stable over time all people have them used to predict future behavior

3 Personality Theorists
Try to determine which traits go together Why people have certain traits Why people exhibit some traits in certain situations Attempt to explain differences between individuals Explain how people conduct their lives Improve life

4 Psychoanalytic (Freud)
Powerful influences are in our unconscious Repress bad things that happened to us and put them into our unconscious Personality is like an energy system Life impulses towards death We are driven by erotic or pleasure seeking urges

5 Freud ID reservoir or container of the instinctual and biological urges We are all ID at birth Lust or drive ridden part of unconscious

6 Freud Ego rational, thoughtful personality process that operates in terms of the reality principle plans what to do develops 2-3yrs of age gets its energy through the ID

7 Freud Superego What person should do source of high ideas
moral principals

8 Freud Defense Mechanisms
rather than face frustration, conflict, or feelings of unworthiness, people deceive themselves into believing that nothing is wrong if the demands of the Id and the Ego can not be resolved

9 Freud Repression When people have too many painful memories that cause the Ego too much anxiety people push that memory or urge out of their consciousness and into their unconscious simply “forget” but does not go away

10 Freud Projection Ego avoiding internal impulses
Ascribing one’s own undesirable attitudes, feelings or thoughts onto others Inner feelings are thrown outside

11 Freud Reaction Formation
replacing the unacceptable feeling or urge with opposite

12 Freud Regression going back to earlier and less mature behavior

13 Freud Displacement The redirection of desires, feelings or impulses from their proper object to a substitute The anxiety is reduced when the ego unconsciously shifts the feelings or impulses to another object

14 Carl Jung Agreed with Freud but . . . . . .
Felt that people worked on their issues There was a collective unconscious Storehouse of instincts, urges and memories of entire human species through out history Archetypes Similar instincts, memories and urges for everyone

15 Alfred Adler Driving force in people’s life is the desire to overcome their feelings of inferiority

16 Alfred Adler Inferiority Complex
person who continually tries to compensate for their weakness and avoids feelings of inadequacy Child pampered by parents tends to produced self centered people Child neglected by parents can become angry and hostile lacks confidence

17 Behaviorism Individuals differ in their learning experiences, they acquire different behaviors and therefor different personalities

18 Behaviorism Skinner No need for general concept of personality structure Focus on what causes a person to act in a specific way Not concerned on understanding behavior but what causes it look to contingencies or reinforces that shape behavior and personality popular because action can be taken to fix

19 Social Learning Theory
Personality acquired through direct reinforcement and observational learning or imitating Learn behavior and personality through watching actions of others

20 Cognitive Theory Shape personality through analysis of your own overt mental actions Emphasis on individual plans including their biases, errors, mistakes and false conclusions

21 Humanistic Psychology
Formed as a rebellion against negative personality theory approaches

22 Humanistic Psychology
Self-actualization humans strive for realization of our potentialities as unique human beings awareness of and respect for one’s own and other people’s uniqueness accepting the responsibilities of freedom desire to become more authentic or true to self

23 Carl Rogers Clients not patients- infers that a patient is sick
Two parts to people Organism whole person, whole body struggling to become complete Self your image of who you are and what you value in yourself, others and in life

24 Carl Rogers Positive regard- approval Condition of worth
Approval or disapproval by mother reflects on who you think you are condition a person must meet in order to regard themselves positively Positives shape personality

25 Rogers Gap Unconditional Positive Regard Fully Functioning
greater the gap between self and organism more defensive one becomes Unconditional Positive Regard cure for this gap others convey the feeling that they value you for who you are in your entirety Fully Functioning self and organism one

26 Gordon Allport Nomothetic approach
study large groups of people in search for general laws of personality Idiographic study a particular person in detail looking at uniqueness Common Traits apply to everyone Individual Traits apply to a specific person

27 Eysenck’s Dimensions of Personality
Factor Analysis mathematical measures extent to which different personality variables are related

28 Dimensions of Personality
Stability Extroverts Introverts

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