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Section IV Feeding Technology and Product Overview Lucas Frei Regional Sales Manager Ukraine.

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1 Section IV Feeding Technology and Product Overview Lucas Frei Regional Sales Manager Ukraine

2 Why are Feeders Necessary? To set the precise throughput to a downstream process Continuous processes such as mixing or extrusion become slaves to the feeders Provide an accurate blend of bulk solids and liquids for a formulation Eliminate pre-mixing of solids/segregation Using individual feeders for each component of the blend Feeders are used to set the flow rates of both liquids and bulk solids.

3 Volumetric Feeding

4 Volumetric Feeding I Speed Regulated Volumetric Feeding:

5 Gravimetric Feeding

6 Gravimetric Control Principle Weight signal Controller Speed Setpoint

7 Gravimetric Feeding Loss-in-Weight Feeding

8 Loss-in-Weight Principle

9 Refill Levels Refill starts Refill stops

10 Important Refill Considerations Choosing the Proper Refill Device Reaction Time of the Device Device must be LEAK FREE Material characteristics Choosing the Proper Hopper Size for Refill Choosing the Refill Times Defining importance of accuracy during refill, particularly when low rate feeding

11 Bellows

12 Venting with filter bag Central venting

13 Feeding Modes There are two basic feeding modes: Batch Gain-in-weight batch Loss-in-weight batch Continuous

14 GIW Batching via Volumetric Feeders Volumetric feeders dose bulk material into a weigh hopper Increase in collection hopper weight is measured Scales weight info is used to control each feeder based upon setpoint or recipe volumetric feeders hopper on load cells

15 Gain-in-Weight Batch Gain-in-weight batch operation Gain-in-weight batch operation in slow motion

16 Gain-in-Weight Batch Systems Advantages Only one scale device for load hopper Cost effective since feeders are volumetric Well suited to large batches Disadvantages Total batch time is dependent upon the number of individual batch times necessary Combination of large single batches and very small batches not as versatile (due to large taring values of the collection hopper)

17 Loss-in-Weight Batch Principle Loss-in-weight feeders dose bulk material into a collection hopper loss-in-weight feeders collection hopper Click for Click for LIW Batch video

18 Loss-in-Weight Batch Systems Advantages Each ingredient is batched out in its own LIW feeder Feeders can then operate simultaneously, making overall batching process shorter Can also batch out variety of ingredients at different bulk densities and high variation in mix percentages with high accuracy Used for minor and micro ingredient weighing where individual percentages and accuracies required are outside the realm of GIW or scaling applications (0.5% of full load ) Disadvantages Higher initial investment for loss-in-weight feeders

19 Continuous Feeding Benefits: Online recipe control No premix station required No product segregation Shorter residence time No waste of premix

20 Feeding Types

21 Typical Feeders Used in Processing Weigh belt feeders Rotary Valves Vibratory tray Volumetric Gravimetric/Loss In Weight Screw Types – twin and single screw Volumetric Gravimetric/Loss-in- Weight Microfeeding

22 Belt Speed Belt Tare Weight Material & Belt Weight Drive Command Operation: Material is conveyed along a belt Belt is suspended on weigh bridges Belt load is measured, belt speed then calculated by control unit Weigh Belt Feeding

23 Weigh Belt Feeder Benefits Low cost for high volumes of flow Function easy to understand Compact for high flow rates Can be extended to use as a conveyor Handle large particle size bulk material Low power requirements Works well in difficult environments

24 Rotary Valves Operation: Series of pockets delivers material volumetrically to process Advantages: Simple design – good for free flowing materials Can be designed for explosion containment Disadvantages: Not ideal for packing/cohesive materials No good control on product delivery, i.e. pocket fill may vary Difficult to manage and clean Pulsating Discharge Limited turndown capabilities

25 Vibratory Feeders Operation: Material is conveyed by vibration Can be volumetric or gravimetric Advantages: Simple design – good for free flowing materials Can also be good for difficult flow materials - high aspect ratio Gentle on products where attrition may be an issue Disadvantages: Not ideal for packing/cohesive materials No good control on product delivery, ie LUMPS IN TRAY Limited turndown capabilities

26 Unique Drive Technology Quick and precise control due to displacement feedback Resonance tracking allows different configurations without adjustment Strong vibration motor with four air gaps Enhanced LWF Algorithm improves accuracy N (S) S (N) N (S) N S Magnet Coil Tray Shock mounts Spring Feedback Sensor

27 Screw Feeders Operation: Material conveyed by either single or double screw Can be volumetric or gravimetric Advantages: Twin screws can be good for cohesive materials Accurate delivery of product Disadvantages: Design options are critical with regards to overall cleanability

28 Single Screw vs Twin Screw Single Screw ideal for free flowing materials, high volumes Twin Screw ideal for more cohesive materials Twin screws have a self wiping effect Twin screws can also provide more even flow to the process

29 Microfeeding as defined by K-Tron Microfeeding is defined as the ability to feed powders consistently and in a dynamic method to a process, at rates as low as 20 gram/hour* Can be provided in either volumetric or gravimetric design, with gravimetric resulting in highest accuracies at low rates Can also be provided for batch or continuous feeding It has been used in limited cases as a doser, but it is not recommended for constant on/off operation * Reminder: 20 g/h = 0.33 g/min feedrate 1% 2sigma dev. (60s) = 3.3 milligram/min

30 Gravimetric Feeding Weigh Belt Feeding

31 WBF Control Loop Controller Setpoint Speed Weight signal

32 WBF Control Principle I Single scale version

33 WBF Control Priniciple II Twin scale version

34 Gravimetric Feeding Flow Metering

35 Smart Flow Meter Unique design features: continually free path gentle handling of bulk material easy to clean no energy needed to transport bulk material practically maintenance free independent of bulk material integrated autotare system no moving parts simple, robust design

36 Measuring Force F R The resulting force F R is measured by the upper sensor station. FRFR

37 Measuring Principle I The flow meter measures the force F R exerted by the material on the slide. As with the belt feeder: Massflow = F v g l cos a v=?

38 Measuring Force F P The resulting force F P is measured by the lower sensor station FPFP

39 Taring at the touch of a button The K-SFM can easily be tared at any time by diverting the flow of material through the bypass. SFM VIDEO

40 Bulk Solids Pump:a New Approach To Solids Feeding

41 Feeding Concepts Definition of a Bulk Solids Feeder A method of bulk solid flow control based on the correlation between machine speed and discharge rate. Typical conveying systems are: Screw feeder Belt feeder Rotary feeder Vibratory feeder

42 BSP Technology Ideal Feeder Characteristics: Gentle Product Handling True Positive Displacement Action Absolutely Linear Over Full Operating Range Excellent Uniformity of Discharge 100% Active Discharge (minimal residual material) Able to Handle Differential Pressures Low Maintenance Design High Wear Resistance Low Power Consumption Quick and Easy to Clean

43 FeatureScrew FeederBelt Feeder Rotary Feeder Vibratory FeederBSP True positive displacement action NoDependent on material No Yes Linear over full operating range Poor (dep. on screw fill) Dependent on material PoorNoyes Uniformity of dischargePoor (pulses) Dependent on material Poor (pulses) Good Active discharge (no residual material) limited (product build-up in screw flight) limited (product build-up on belt) Bad (product build-up on the rotary wall) BadGood Unaffected by differential pressures LimitedNoYesNoYes Mechanical & maintenance simplicity YesNoYes Wear ResistancePoor GoodVery good Power ConsumptionHighMediumHighLow Product DegradationHighMediumHighLowVery low Comparison of Feeding Concepts

44 Lock-Up Principle The BSP principle provides continuous, positive displacement volumetric control by exploiting the phenomenon known as lock-up. LOCK-UP

45 BSP Video Clip click on the graphic to start the video

46 Liquid Feeders

47 Feeding Liquids Depending on the application and accuracy required, two feeding modes are possible: Volumetric Loss-in-weight

48 PID Control Principle controller setpoint motor drive current thoughput feedback DC motor pumpflow meter drive command

49 Design The liquid tank is mounted on either 3 SFTs or a scale Flexible connections to the pump which is independent of the weigh system The controls are standard K-Tron loss-in-weight controls

50 K-TRON Weighing Technology

51 The Principle The K-SFT supplies a fully compensated true weigh signal. * ASIC: Application Specific Integrated Circuit

52 SFT Features One-time only calibration by manufacturer Integrated linearization and temperature compensation High accuracy and reliability in any environment Fast sampling time samples per second 1: 4`000`000 resolution in 80ms Improved filtering techniques - real time calculation - not just sample averaging Simultaneous sampling/processing

53 Improved Performance

54 Accuracy

55 ActiFlow Prevention of bridge building with difficult flowing materials

56 Hoppers & Agitation AC Agitator Drive Vertical Agitator Horizontal Agitator

57 Vertical Agitation Requires additional headroom above the feeder Heavy motor on lid can make servicing difficult Needs a separate motor starter (DOL) Causes clean-ability issues. Expensive

58 Poor Flow in Hoppers = Poor consistent feeding Difficult powders: May get compacted Form ratholes & bridges Result in operation: Production interruption Quality problems Screw feeder accuracy is a function of consistent screw fill Ratholes or bridges

59 Alternative Solutions for Improved Hopper Flow Design Options Vertical Agitation Flexible Elastomer Liners (eg FlexWall, Shear Hoppers) Bin Vibrators Air Injectors (eg Magic Mushrooms) Elastomer Coatings

60 Hopper Flow Aids – Pros and Cons OPTIONPROSCONS Vertical Agitators May be better suited for Large Hoppers Require additional headroom for operation and maintenance Can cause weight disturbances in gravimetric feeders Cleanability and accessability are concerns Flexible LinersKeeps material fluid in hopper Can cause additional packing and densification of cohesive materials Liners can stain =cleanability concern Can cause weight disturbances Bin VibratorsExternal to processCan cause additional packing of material Can cause weight disturbances depending onfrequencies

61 Flow Aid for LIW feeders - ActiFlow Click for Actiflow video

62 ActiFlow Design The ActiFlow Device is bolted to the outside of the hopper wall, with no product contact. It is ideal for applications which require a stainless steel hopper. The special design ensures material activation has a minimal effect on the weighing system.

63 Questions?

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