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Batching and Mixing Peter Ferket Charles Stark North Carolina State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Batching and Mixing Peter Ferket Charles Stark North Carolina State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Batching and Mixing Peter Ferket Charles Stark North Carolina State University

2 Batching & Mixing Objective Accurately weigh each ingredient Minimize batching time Produce a feed that has a uniform distribution of nutrients and medications

3 EQUIPMENT

4 Micro Bin Systems Tote Bag Systems Scales  Major  Minor Weigh Buggy Batching Equipment

5 Scales

6 Batching – Scale Fill Test Major & Minor Scales  Fill test evaluates full range of load cells Add test weights  Record weight Remove weights Fill scale to 1/3 capacity Add test weights  Record weight Remove weights Fill scale to 2/3 capacity Add test weights  Record weight  Document results 1/3 2/3 200 lb

7 Batching – Manual Weighing Weigh Buggy Platform Scale

8 Feed Mill Designs Pre-batch grindPost-mix grind Post-batch grind Post-pellet blend

9 Batching – Micro System Multiple Hopper Scale Single Hopper Scale

10 Batching - Totes Totes & ScalesTote Transfer

11 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Major Scale: Computer draws multiple bins to the major scale. Computer switches to one bin and jogs at the end of the each ingredient. Major Ingredients Corn/Wheat SBM Midds DDGS Batching Sequence

12 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Minor Scale Fill: Computer draws single bins to the minor scale and jogs at the end of the each ingredient. Minor Ingredients Dical Limestone Salt Lysine Batching Sequence

13 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Micro Scale Fill: Computer draws single bins to the micro scale and jogs at the end of the each ingredient. Micro Ingredients Vitamins Trace Minerals Medications Amino Acids Batching Sequence

14 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Scale Considerations: Major Scale 80-90% Minor Scale 10-15% Micro Scale < 5% Batching Sequence

15 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Major Scale Discharges First Fills the dead space between the ribbons and tub. Batching Sequence

16 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Minor Scale Discharges after a 5-10 second delay Minor ingredients mix with the major ingredients Batching Sequence

17 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Micro Scale Discharges after a 0-5 second delay Micro tub or scales open and the material is transferred with a drag conveyor Batching Sequence

18 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching System Liquid Addition Volumetric (meter) Gravimetric (weighed) Liquid Ingredients: Fat Molasses Choline Amino acids Mixing Time Horizontal Double Ribbon second Dry Mix second Wet Mix Batching

19 Major Scale Minor Scale Micro Scale Batching/Mixing System Discharge Process Mixer opens and material drops to a surge hopper Batching Sequence

20 Weighing 2 min Discharge 1 min Mixing 3 min Weighing 2 min Discharge 1 min Mixing 3 min Batch Cycle – 4 mins Batch Cycle

21 Automation System

22 Batch Production Report

23 MIXING EQUIPMENT

24 Horizontal Ribbon Mixer

25 Double Ribbon Mixer – Mixing Zones Feed Flow Main Mixing Zone Typical mix time = 3-4 min

26 Double Ribbon Horizontal Mixer

27 Paddle Mixer

28 Paddle Mixer – Mixing Zones Feed Flow Main Mixing Some Mixing Some Mixing

29 Horizontal Paddle Mixer

30 Rotating Drum Mixer – Mixing Zones Main Mixing Zone

31 Drum Mixer

32 Ribbon Mixer - Counterpoise

33 Ribbon Mixer – Counterpoise Mixing Zone

34 Forberg Fluid Bed Mixer

35 Forberg Mixer

36 Vertical Mixer

37 Vertical Mixer – Mixing Zones Main Mixing Zone Main Mixing Zone Main Mixing Zone

38 Vertical Mixer

39 Mixer Problems Material on ribbonsMaterial on paddles

40 Batching & Mixing Problems Fat sprayed on ribbon and shaft Fat lumps created by poor liquid application and mixing

41 MIXER UNIFORMITY ANALYSIS

42 Factors Affecting Uniformity Particle Shape  Spherical, square, flat Particle Size  Different particle size can separate during the handling process Density  Heavy particles may settle out during conveying and discharge to a bin Static Charge  Particles will adhere to equipment if not properly grounded Hydroscopicity  Vitamins or Feed Additives may absorb water Adhesiveness  Fats or molasses may adhere to equipment

43 What Represents the Goal of Mixing? Perfect Mix Random Mix Segregated Mix

44 Weighing Ingredients Correctly? Weighing Accuracy Feed mills overdose their ingredients by about 1.5% Average inaccuracy in dosing within feed mills ranges from % About 85% of the calls are weighted with an error of ± 5% and about 90% are within ± 10% of called weight

45 Distribution of weighing errors

46 Overdosing and weighing errors error within mill (a-n) across all observations

47 Are You Weighing Ingredients Correctly? Weighing Precision Variation in weighing within ingredients, expressed as Coefficient of Variation (CV) Weighing CV ranges on average of about 5% ( % CV)

48 Causes of Weighing Variation Hand-weighing ingredients  People tend to overdose by about 1% when ingredients are weighed by hand Micro-ingredients and premix dose errors  Micro-ingredients scales seem to be more variable than macro-ingredient scales because of the size of the call Descrepancies between call size and scale resolution  Average weighing discrepancies in feed mill is about 2% but can range up to 20%  For example, requesting 11.3 lbs of an ingredient when the scale has a resolution of only 2 lbs. Ratio of call size to scale resolution  Weighing errors and CV decreases as the call size to scale resolution increases. For example, a call for 100 lbs to be weighed on a scale with a resolution of 5 lbs gives a call/scale resolution of 20, where as a call for the same 100 lbs on a scale with a resolution of 2 lbs gives a ratio of 50.

49 Experimental Data Weighing errors and CVs for different call size to scale resolutions Call Size:Scale Resolution Ratio Weighing Error, %CV, %

50 Mixer Uniformity Analysis Mixer Markers  Single nutrient/ingredient Salt Synthetic Amino Acids (Lysine or Methonine) Dry Mix Uniformity  Economical  Accurate and precise at inclusion level Test twice per year Ten samples from the same batch of feed Sample mixer or a point closest to the discharge

51 Mixer Uniformity Analysis Sampling Points  Mixer or Surge samples provides information on dead spots in the mixer or mixer maintenance issues  Sampling during the discharge process provides representative samples of the feed as it moves through the system.

52 Feed Quality Assurance – Mixer Test Sample mixer OR Sample surge OR Sample discharge conveyor

53 Mixer Uniformity Analysis - Quantab™

54 Weigh 10 gram sample of feed into a dish Scale +/- 0.1 g

55 Mixer Uniformity Analysis - Quantab™ Fold filter paper to create a cone

56 Mixer Uniformity Analysis - Quantab™ Measure out 90 ml of HOT distilled water SAFETY  Hot Water Burns!!

57 Mixer Uniformity Analysis Mix sample and water for 30 sec wait and re-mix for 30 sec. Place filter paper cone in cup Place Quantab strip into the filter cone Indicator strip at the top will turn black when complete

58 Mixer Uniformity Analysis - Quantab™ Read highest point on the strip Determine NaCl level based on the calibration chart on the bottle. Multiple by 10 (10:1 dilution)

59 Mixer Uniformity Analysis Calculations Calculation of Mixer CV  Mean of samples  Standard deviation of samples  CV % = standard deviation x 100 mean

60 Mixer Uniformity Analysis Calculations

61 Mixer Uniformity Evaluation CVRATINGCORRECTIVE ACTION < 10%Excellent None 10-15% Good Increase mixing time by 25-30% 15-20%Fair Increase mixing time by 50%, look for worn equipment, overfilling, or sequence of ingredient addition 20% +Poor Possible combination of all the above Consults extension personnel or feed equipment manufacturer

62 Double Ribbon Mixer – RPM’s

63 Double Ribbon Mixer – Worn Ribbons

64 Double Ribbon Mixer – Wrong Rotation

65 Double Ribbon Mixer – Build-Up

66 Questions


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