Chapter 5 Objectives List the basic nutrients necessary for a healthy body and describe their functions. Describe the key themes of the USDA MyPyramid Food Guidance System. List five specific nutrition guidelines of the MyPyramid System.
Chapter 5 Objectives Explain how to interpret the nutritional information provided on food labels. List the food safety hazards and describe prevention measures. List your nutrition pitfalls and define a strategy to avoid them.
Important Nutrition Terminology Nutrition Essential Nutrients Macronutrients Micronutrients
Important Nutrition Terminology TermDefinition Nutrition The science devoted to the study of dietary needs for food and the effects of food on organisms.
Important Nutrition Terminology TermDefinition Essential Nutrients Nutrients that the body cannot manufacture for itself and must obtain from food.
Important Nutrition Terminology TermDefinition Macronutrients Nutrients required by the human body in the greatest amounts, including water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Important Nutrition Terminology TermDefinition Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals needed by the body in very small amounts.
Fig. 5-1, p. 128
Fig. 5-2, p. 129
Organs That Aid Digestion Digestive Tract Organs That Contain the Food Salivary Glands Produce a starch- digesting enzyme Produce a trace of fat- digesting enzyme (important to infants) Liver Manufactures bile, a detergentlike substance that facilitates digestion of fats Gallbladder Stores bile until needed Bile Duct Conducts bile to small intestine Pancreatic Duct Conducts pancreatic juice into small intestine Pancreas Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy- yielding nutrients Releases bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid that enters small intestine Stomach Adds acid, enzymes, and fluid Churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass Small Intestine Secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein Cells lining intestine absorb nutrients into blood and lymph fluids Large Intestine (Colon) Reabsorbs water and minerals Passes waste (fiber, bacteria, any unabsorbed nutrients) and some water to rectum Rectum Stores waste prior to elimination Anus Holds rectum closed Opens to allow elimination Esophagus Passes food to stomach Mouth Chews and mixes food with saliva Stepped Art Fig. 5-2, p. 129
Macronutrient Recommendations Water Minimum of 64 ounces of water/day Proteins 10-35% of total daily calories Carbohydrates 45-65% of total daily calories Fats Adults: 20-35% of total daily calories Children: 25-40% of total calories
How Many Calories Do I Need? Calories The measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food. Basal Metabolic Rate The number of calories needed to sustain your body at rest. Factors Affecting Calorie Needs Gender, age, body-frame, weight, percentage body fat, basal metabolic rate and activity level.
Estimations of Daily Calorie Needs Individual CharacteristicsCalories Per Day Most women, some older adults, children ages two to six 1,600 Average adult 2,000 Most men, active women, teenage girls, older children 2,200 Active men, teenage boys 2,800
Water Functions of Water Carries nutrients. Maintains temperature. Lubricates joints. Helps with digestion. Rids the body of wastes through urine. Contributes to the production of sweat. Water in the Body Blood: 85% water Muscles: 70% water Brain: 75% water Daily Water Losses ~64-80 ounces of water a day through perspiration, urination, bowel movements, and normal exhalation.
Proteins Description Critical for growth, maintenance and repair, proteins form the basic framework for our muscles, bones, blood, hair, and fingernails.
Proteins Characteristics 4 calories per gram Made from a combination of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential. Complete proteins: animal proteins – meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products. Incomplete proteins: grains, dry beans, and nuts.
Proteins Dietary Recommendations 0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight for adults.
Carbohydrates Description Organic compounds that provide our brains and bodies with glucose, their basic fuel.
Carbohydrates Characteristics 4 calories per gram Simple (sugars) vs. complex (starches and fiber) Major food sources of carbohydrates are plants – including grains, vegetables, fruits, and beans – and milk.
Carbohydrates Dietary Recommendations At least 130 grams/day to support brain function. Limit added sugars to no more than 25% of total daily calories. At least 3 servings of whole grain/day. Men: 38 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 30 grams. Women: 25 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 21 grams.
Table 5-1, p. 133
Fats Description Carry and aid in the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K. Protect organs from injury. Regulate body temperature. Play an important role in growth and development.
Fats Characteristics 9 calories per gram. Unsaturated fats: Monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids) which are liquid at room temperature and come from vegetable and fish oils. Saturated fats: Animal fats that tend to be solid at room temperature. Trans fats: created by a process called hydrogenation. Found in some margarine products, baked goods and fried foods. Linked to heart disease.
Fats Dietary Recommendations Choose soybean, canola, corn, olive, safflower, and sunflower oils. Look for reduced-fat, low- fat, fat-free, and trans fat- free versions of baked goods, snacks, and other processed foods.
Vitamins Description Help put proteins, fats, and carbohydrates to use. Essential to regulating growth, maintaining tissue, and releasing energy from food. Involved in the manufacture of blood cells, hormones, and other compounds.
Vitamins Characteristics Fat-soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and K Stored in the body. Water-soluble: B vitamins (8 total) and vitamin C Used up by the body or washed out in urine and sweat. Must be replaced daily.
Antioxidants Description Substances that prevent the harmful effects caused by oxidation within the body. Antioxidants share a common enemy: renegade oxygen cells called free radicals released by normal metabolism, as well as by pollution, smoking, radiation, and stress.
Antioxidants Characteristics Vitamins C, E, and beta- carotene (a form of vitamin A). Phytochemicals such as carotenoids and flavonoids.
Antioxidants Dietary Recommendations Consume a diet high in antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables each and everyday.
Minerals Description Help build bones and teeth. Aid in muscle function. Help our nervous system transmit messages.
Minerals Characteristics Make up 4% of our body weight. 16 minerals Major: Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur. Trace: Iron, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, iodine, copper, manganese, fluoride and chromium.
Calcium Description Builds strong bone tissue throughout life. Plays a vital role in blood clotting, and muscle and nerve functioning. May help control high blood pressure, prevent colon cancer in adults, and promote weight loss.
Calcium Characteristics Adequate calcium intake during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood is crucial to prevent osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis Bone-weakening disease Strikes 1 in 4 women over age 60. Peak Bone Mass years The higher an individuals peak bone mass, the longer it takes for age- and menopause-related bone losses to increase the risk of fracture. Age 40 Bone loss equivalent to a rate of percent per year begins in both men and women. Menopause The rate of bone loss can increase at a rate of 3-5%. Prevention Adequate calcium intake and exercise.
Sodium Characteristics Excess sodium is not a problem for most healthy individuals. 30% of the population is salt-sensitive and therefore too much sodium can contribute to high blood pressure.
Sodium Dietary Recommendations National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: <2,400 mg/day (1 teaspoon of table salt) For Individual With High Blood Pressure: <1,500 mg/day
Phytochemicals Description Chemicals such as indoles, coumarins, and capsaicin, which exist naturally in plants and have disease fighting properties.
Phytochemicals Benefits Flavonoids: may decrease atherosclerotic plaque and DNA damage related to cancer development. Associated with reduced risk of heart disease, certain cancers, age-related macular degeneration, adult-onset diabetes, stroke and other diseases.
Are You at Risk for a Nutritional Deficiency? GroupNutrients of Concern Teenage Girls Iron Calcium Women of child-bearing age Iron Folic Acid Persons over age 50 Vitamin B12 The elderly, persons with dark skin and individuals without adequate exposure to the sun Vitamin D
Are You Getting Enough of These Nutrients? For Adults Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin E Calcium Magnesium Potassium Fiber For Children Vitamin E Calcium Magnesium Potassium Fiber
The MyPyramid Food Guidance System Fig. 5-4, p. 143
The MyPyramid Food Guidance System Fig. 5-4, p. 143
Key Themes of MyPyamid 1.Variety 2.Proportionality 3.Moderation 4.Activity 5.Personalization
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Consume a Variety of Foods Consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk products. The greater the variety of colors and of foods you choose, the more likely you are to obtain the nutrients you need. Benefits: Reduced risk of chronic disease, and encourages a diet low in saturated fat, cholesterol, added sugars, trans fat, and sodium.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Manage Your Weight Make it a point to expend as much energy as you take in. Limit portion sizes, substitute nutrient-rich foods for nutrient-poor foods, and limit added sugars, solid fats, and alcoholic beverages. Benefits: Reduced risk of those chronic diseases related to obesity.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Get Physical Everyday Health Benefits: 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day. Weight Gain Prevention: 60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day. Weight Loss Maintenance: minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day. Children and Teenagers: 60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day. Benefits : Helps maintain a healthy weight and reduces the risk for several chronic diseases.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Increase Foods from Certain Food Groups Consume 5-13 servings or 2 ½ to 6 ½ cups of fruits and vegetables each day. Benefits: May reduce the risk of stroke, certain cancers, and type 2 diabetes, and encourages a healthy weight. Consume 3 or more servings of whole grains each day. Benefits: Reduces the risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and aid in maintenance of a healthy weight. Consume at least 3 servings of milk, yogurt, or cheese a day. Benefits: Reduced risk for high blood pressure, obesity, and osteoporosis.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Choose Carbohydrates Wisely Get your carbohydrates by eating more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk and dairy products. Benefits: May reduce the risk of a variety of chronic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease while promoting digestive health. Reduce your intake of added sugars. Benefits: Maintenance of a healthy weight and reduced risk of dental caries.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Be Finicky About Fats Reduce your intake of saturated fat (<10% of total calories), trans fat (as low as possible), and cholesterol (<300 mg per day). Benefits: Can lower harmful LDL cholesterol and your risk of heart disease. Aim for two servings of fish high in omega- 3 fatty acids each week. Benefits: Can boost heart health and reduce your risk of dying of heart disease.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Limit Salt Consume <2,300 mg of sodium per day, and increase potassium intake to at least 4,700 mg. Benefits: May lower your blood pressure and reduce your risk for stroke, heart disease, and kidney disease.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter If You Drink Alcoholic Beverages, Do So In Moderation For most middle-aged and older adults, one to two drinks a day. Benefits: May lower the risk of dying, primarily because moderate alcohol consumption protects against heart disease Disadvantages: Compared with nondrinkers, women who consume one alcoholic beverage per day appear to have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. For younger people, alcohol provides little, if any, health benefits and increases the risk of traumatic injury and death.
Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Keep Food Safe Thoroughly wash hands. Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to- eat foods while shopping, preparing and storing. Cook foods to safe temperatures. Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly.
Dietary Diversity African-American Diet Chinese Diet French Diet Indian Diet Japanese Diet Mediterranean Diet Mexican Diet Southeast Asian Diet
Fig. 5-6, p. 153
Vegetarian Food Pyramid Fig. 5-7, p. 155
Quick and Easy Estimates of Portion Sizes 1 medium fruit is about the size of a baseball. 1 c cooked vegetables is about the size of your fist. 1/2 c ice cream is about the size of a racquet ball. 3 oz. of meat is about the size of a deck of cards. 1 1/2 oz. cheese is about the size of six stacked dice. 1/4 c dried fruit is about the size of a golf ball. 2 tbs. peanut butter is about the size of a marshmallow. 4 small cookies are about the size of 4 poker chips. Fig. 5-8, p. 156
Understanding Nutrition Labels Food labels can be misleading. Two examples of labels claiming lean ground beef. Only the 7% fat beef is actually lean. 20% fat ground beef is far from lean, actually providing 21 grams of fat and 70% of total calories from fat per serving.
Fight BAC! Four Key Culprits in Foodborne Illness Improper cooling Improper hand washing Inadequate cooking Failure to avoid cross- contamination