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An Invitation to Health Chapter 5 Personal Nutrition Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Presentation on theme: "An Invitation to Health Chapter 5 Personal Nutrition Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Invitation to Health Chapter 5 Personal Nutrition Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

2 Defining ‘Nutrition’ Part 1: The science of foods, nutrients & other substances they contain. Part 2: The actions of foods & nutrients in the body. Part 3: The influence of foods and nutrients on health and disease.

3 Essential Nutrients Definition The chemical substances found in foods and used in the body to provide: Energy Structural materials Regulating materials Essential nutrients also support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body’s tissues.

4 Accessory Organs That Aid Digestion

5 The Six Classes of Nutrients Macronutrients 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Water Micronutrients 5. Vitamins 6. Minerals

6 Calorie Values of Common Nutrients Carbohydrates Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram 4 calories per gram Fats (lipids) Fats (lipids) 9 calories per gram 9 calories per gram Proteins Proteins 4 calories per gram 4 calories per gram Alcohols Alcohols 7 calories per gram 7 calories per gram Vitamins, Minerals & Water Vitamins, Minerals & Water 0 calories per gram 0 calories per gram

7 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) Carbohydrates Adults: 45-65% of total daily calories Children: 25-40% of total calories Fats (lipids) 20-35% of total daily calories Proteins 10-35% of total daily calories

8 Nutrient Density Definition A measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. The more nutrients and the fewer calories, the higher the nutrient density.

9 Water Functions Essential for body temperature regulation. Transportation of nutrients and wastes in the body. All chemical reactions. Maintenance of blood volume. Yields no energy Goal 64 ounces/day

10 Proteins Functions Critical for growth, maintenance and repair of muscles, bones, blood, hair and fingernails. Critical for growth, maintenance and repair of muscles, bones, blood, hair and fingernails. Key to synthesis of enzymes, hormones, antibodies and provide essential amino acids. Key to synthesis of enzymes, hormones, antibodies and provide essential amino acids.Characteristics 4 calories per gram. 4 calories per gram. 20 amino acids total; 9 essential amino acids. 20 amino acids total; 9 essential amino acids. Complete vs. incomplete proteins. Complete vs. incomplete proteins.Goal: grams per kilogram

11 Carbohydrates Functions Provides our brains and body with glucose. Provides our brains and body with glucose.Characteristics 4 calories per gram. 4 calories per gram. Simple vs. complex carbohydrates. Simple vs. complex carbohydrates.Goal At least 130 grams/day to support brain function. At least 130 grams/day to support brain function. Limit added sugars to no more than 25% of total daily calories. Limit added sugars to no more than 25% of total daily calories. At least 3 servings of whole grain/day. At least 3 servings of whole grain/day. Men: 38 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 30 grams. Men: 38 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 30 grams. Women: 25 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 21 grams. Women: 25 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 21 grams.

12 Fats Functions Carry and help with absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Carry and help with absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Protect organs from injury. Protect organs from injury. Regulate body temperature. Regulate body temperature. Play an important role in growth and development. Play an important role in growth and development.Characteristics 9 calories per gram. 9 calories per gram. Saturated vs. unsaturated fats vs. trans fats. Saturated vs. unsaturated fats vs. trans fats. Margarine vs. butter. Margarine vs. butter.Goal 20-35% of total daily calories % of total daily calories.

13 Vitamins Functions Help put proteins, fats, and carbohydrates to use. Help put proteins, fats, and carbohydrates to use. Essential to regulating growth, maintaining tissue, and releasing energy from food. Essential to regulating growth, maintaining tissue, and releasing energy from food. Involved in the manufacture of blood cells, hormones, and other compounds. Involved in the manufacture of blood cells, hormones, and other compounds.Characteristics Fat-soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and K. Fat-soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and K. Water-soluble: B vitamins (8 total) and vitamin C Water-soluble: B vitamins (8 total) and vitamin CGoal Dietary reference intakes Dietary reference intakes

14 Minerals Functions Help build bones and teeth. Help build bones and teeth. Aid in muscle function. Aid in muscle function. Help our nervous system transmit messages. Help our nervous system transmit messages.Characteristics 16 minerals 16 minerals Major: Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur. Major: Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur. Trace: Iron, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, iodine, copper, manganese, fluoride and chromium. Trace: Iron, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, iodine, copper, manganese, fluoride and chromium.

15 Antioxidants Vitamin C, E and beta- carotene, carotenoids and flavonoids. Vitamin C, E and beta- carotene, carotenoids and flavonoids. Free radicals: Free radicals: Result of Normal metabolism, pollution, smoking, radiation and stress. Result of Normal metabolism, pollution, smoking, radiation and stress.

16 Osteoporosis Bone-weakening disease. Bone-weakening disease. Strikes 1 in 4 women over age 60. Strikes 1 in 4 women over age 60. Peak Bone Mass Peak Bone Mass years years Bone loss begins at age 40. Bone loss begins at age 40. Menopause Menopause Bone loss increases to a rate of 3-5 Bone loss increases to a rate of 3-5 Prevention Prevention Adequate calcium intake and exercise. Adequate calcium intake and exercise.

17 Threats to Bone Health

18 Iron-deficiency Anemia Related to too little iron – and thus too little hemoglobin in the blood. Related to too little iron – and thus too little hemoglobin in the blood. 5% of women of childbearing age. 5% of women of childbearing age. Symptoms: Symptoms: Sensitivity to cold., chronic fatigue, edginess, depression, sleeplessness, and susceptibility to colds and infection. Sensitivity to cold., chronic fatigue, edginess, depression, sleeplessness, and susceptibility to colds and infection. Prevention: To enhance iron absorption consume foods high in vitamin C. Choose more beans, peas, green leafy vegetables, enriched grain products, egg yolk, fish, and lean meats. Don’t drink tea with your meals.

19 Eating for Good Health Eat five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Eat five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Include three servings of whole-grain foods every day. Include three servings of whole-grain foods every day. Consume a calcium-rich food at each meal. Consume a calcium-rich food at each meal. Eat less meat. Eat less meat. Avoid high-fat fast foods. Avoid high-fat fast foods. Think small. Think small. Read labels carefully. Read labels carefully. Switch to low-fat and no-fat dairy products. Switch to low-fat and no-fat dairy products. When choosing fruits and vegetables, the brighter the better. When choosing fruits and vegetables, the brighter the better.

20 The Food Guide Pyramid

21 Breads, Cereal, Rice & Pasta Group 6-11 servings Complex carbosComplex carbos FiberFiber ProteinProtein B vitamins (riboflavin, thiamin, niacin)B vitamins (riboflavin, thiamin, niacin) Iron, magnesiumIron, magnesium

22 Vegetable Group 3-5 servings Fiber Vitamins A, C and folate Potassium Magnesium Iron and zinc Calcium Phytochemicals

23 Fruit Group 2-4 servings FiberFiber Vitamins A & CVitamins A & C PotassiumPotassium IronIron PhytochemicalsPhytochemicals

24 Milk, Cheese & Yogurt Group 2-3 servings Protein Calcium Riboflavin Vitamin B12 Fortified Foods: Vitamin A & D

25 Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts Group 2-3 servings Meat, Poultry & Fish ProteinProtein PhosphorusPhosphorus Vitamins B 6 & B 12Vitamins B 6 & B 12 Iron & zincIron & zinc Niacin & thiaminNiacin & thiamin Legumes Protein Fiber Thiamin, folate & vitamin E Potassium magnesium, iron & zinc

26 Fats,Oils & Sweets Use Sparingly Sugar Fat Alcohol Calories

27 Quick and Easy Estimates of Portion Sizes

28 The “Healthy Eating” Pyramid

29 Dietary Diversity African-American Diet Chinese Diet French Diet Indian Diet Japanese Diet Mediterranean Diet Mexican Diet Southeast Asian Diet

30 Mediterranean Diet Pyramid

31 New York Medical College Vegetarian Pyramid

32 Food Safety Pesticides GeneticallyEngineeredFoods Irradiation Organic Additives

33 Protecting Yourself From Food Poisoning Clean food thoroughly. Clean food thoroughly. Drink only pasteurized milk. Drink only pasteurized milk. Don’t eat raw eggs. Don’t eat raw eggs. Cook chicken and pork thoroughly. Cook chicken and pork thoroughly. Know how to store foods. Know how to store foods. Danger Zone: Between 40°F and 140°F. Danger Zone: Between 40°F and 140°F. Stored food doesn’t last forever. Stored food doesn’t last forever.

34 Comparing the Food Safety Behavior Of Students To The General Public

35 Spotting Nutrition Misinformation

36 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2000 The ABC’s For Your Health 1. Aim For Fitness 2. Build A Healthy Base 3. Choose Sensibly


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