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CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Chapter 7 – Part 1 CP Biology Paul VI Catholic High School.

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Presentation on theme: "CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Chapter 7 – Part 1 CP Biology Paul VI Catholic High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Chapter 7 – Part 1 CP Biology Paul VI Catholic High School

2 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION HISTORY: 1600’SAnton van Leeuwenhoek 1665Robert Hooke 1838Matthias Schleiden 1839Theodor Schwann 1855Rudolph Virchow

3 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Anton van Leeuwenhoek

4 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Robert Hooke 1665

5 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Matthias Schleiden 1838

6 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Theodor Schwann 1839

7 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Rudolf Virchow 1855

8 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CELL THEORY: 1.All living things are composed of cells 2.Cells are the basic unit of structure & function in living things 3.New cells are produced from pre-existing cells

9 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION BASIC CELL STRUCTURE: ALL Cells have: Cell Membrane Cytosol

10 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION SOME CELLS HAVE : Nucleus Cytoplasm

11 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CELL CATEGORIES: EUKARYOTIC CELLS (Eukaryotes) PROKARYOTIC CELLS (Prokaryotes)

12 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION EUKARYOTES: Contain nucleus Have Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Include Plant, Animal, Fungi, and many Microorganisms

13 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

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15 PROKARYOTES: Smaller, Simpler Cells Cell Membranes NO Nuclei ALL Bacteria are Prokaryotes Examples - E. coli S. Aureus

16 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CELL SIZE Average Cell 5-50 μm Surface Area 4 π r 2 Volume 4/3 πr 3 Cell Surface is interface between internal and external environment

17 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION A small cell has a greater ratio of surface area to volume than a large cell of the same shape. – This ratio limits cell size!

18 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CELL STRUCTURES: 1. CELL WALL: Found in Plants, Algae, Fungi and many Prokaryotes Function - Support & Protection External to Cell Membrane

19 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION 1a. BACTERIAL CELL WALL: Characteristics: P eptidoglycan Gram + (Violet/Blue) Gram – (Red/Pink) Encapsulated

20 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

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22 1b. PLANT CELL WALLS: Green Plants - Primary Cellulose Woody Plants - Secondary Lignin

23 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

24 (CELL STRUCTURES - cont’d) 2. NUCLEUS Robert Brown (1831) Chromatin/Chromosome Nucleoplasm Nucleolus Nuclear Envelope

25 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Brown’s Microscope Robert Brown

26 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

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31 Additional Organelles: You are responsible for the name, structure, function and visual recognition of the following organelles: 3. Ribosome 4. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Smooth ER Rough ER 5. Golgi Apparatus 6. Vacuole 7. Lysosome 8. Mitochondrion 9. Chloroplast

32 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Flagellum Not in most plant cells Lysosome Centriole Microtubule Cytoskeleton Intermediate filament Microfilament Peroxisome

33 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Central vacuole Not in animal cells Chloroplast Cell wall Golgi apparatus Nucleus Microtubule Cytoskeleton Intermediate filament Microfilament Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum

34 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CYTOSKELETON: a. Microtubules b. Intermediate filaments c. Actin filaments /M icrofilaments * Know Structure and function of each

35 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Long, thin fibers “String of Pearls” Concentrated in Cortex Amoeboid Motion Most durable “Rope-like” Structure Provide Stability (vimentin) Hollow tube MTOC Strengthen Cell Stabilize cell relative to other cells

36 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION A. Microtubules Functions – Structural Role Movement of Chromosomes Structural Component of Cilia and Flagella Track for motor proteins

37 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Plus End (+) Away from MTOC (Toward Nucleus) Minus End (-) Toward the MTOC A. Microtubules

38 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION INTRACELLULAR MOTOR MOLECULES E xamples- KINESIN: Move Organelles toward (+) end DYNEIN: Move Organelles toward (-) end Kinesin Walking YouTube The inner Life of the Cell Video

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41 B. Intermediate Filaments: Function - Strengthen Cell Stabilize Position organelles Stabilize cell relative to other cells

42 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION C. Actin filaments (Microfilaments) Function: Anchor Cytoskeleton to cell membrane Determine consistency of cytoplasm Interact with Myosin (motor molecule) for muscle contraction Muscle Contraction Video

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44 CELL MOVEMENT: 1. Crawling: Actin/Myosin Gel-Sol States Pseudopod Formation 2. Pinching Actin filaments Animal cells Cytokinesis

45 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

46 Amoeba

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49 Cytokinesis of Animal Cell

50 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Actin filament causing cell separation

51 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CELL MOVEMENT: 3. Prokaryote FlagellaProkaryote Flagella Protein Structure (flagellin) Rotatory Movement Molecular motor in cell wall Basal Apparatus Hook Filament

52 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

53 CELL MOVEMENT: 4. Eukaryote FlagellaEukaryote Flagella Microtubular Structure 9+2 Arrangement Basal Body Origin 9 “triplet” structure “Whip-like” motion

54 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION “9+2” arrangement microtubules

55 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

56 CELL MOVEMENT: 5. Cilia Many, Short, often in rows Internal structure like flagella Multiple functions

57 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Structure Of Cilia


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