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“The smallest unit that can carry out all the processes of life.”

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Presentation on theme: "“The smallest unit that can carry out all the processes of life.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “The smallest unit that can carry out all the processes of life.”
THE CELL “The smallest unit that can carry out all the processes of life.”

2 Discovery of the Cell ROBERT HOOKE First to observe cells.
He examined cork cells. “These little boxes reminded him of the small rooms in which monks lived, so he called them cells.”

3 Discovery of the Cell Anton van Leeuwenhoek – First person to examine living cells & father of microscopy Matthias Schleiden – “All plants are composed of cells.” Theodore Schwann – “All animals are composed of cells.” Rudolf Virchow – “All cells come from existing cells.”

4 The Cell Theory Schleiden, Schwann, & Virchow
All living things are composed of one or more cells. Cells are organisms’ basic units of structure & function. Cells come from existing cells.

5 CELL DIVERSITY Cells range in size from .2 um to 2 m.
Average plant & animal cells are 10 to 50 um in diameter. Cuboidal & spherical.

6 TYPES OF CELLS Eukaryotes – Contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotes – Lacks a nucleus. (bacteria) Organelle – A cell component that performs specific functions in the cell.

7 ORGANELLES Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Mitochondria Lysosomes Cytoskeleton - Microtubules & Microfilaments Cilia Flagella

8 The Nucleus Directs activities of the cell. Contains DNA.
Nucleolus – synthesis of ribosomes. Nuclear pores Nuclear envelope Nucleoplasm

9 CYTOPLASM Contains various organs in the cell
Gelatin-like fluid called cytosol which has dissolved salts, minerals, and organic molecules

10 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
Encodes information important for the synthesis of proteins.

11 CELL MEMBRANE Made of lipids & proteins. Provides shape & flexibility.
Selectively Permeable - a complex barrier that keeps out some molecules & allows others through.

12 RIBOSOMES Carry out protein synthesis.
Attached ribosomes - attached to Rough ER; produce proteins to be exported by the cell. Free ribosomes - produce proteins for the cell.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - (ER) - A membrane system covered with ribosomes; aids in protein synthesis. Smooth ER - Few or no ribosomes; intracellular pathway for proteins.

14 GOLGI APPARATUS System of membranes.
Processing, packaging, & secreting organelle of the cell.

15 MITOCHONDRIA “Powerhouse of the cell.”
Carries out cellular respiration.

16 LYSOSOMES Contains digestive enzymes.
Digests food & disease-causing bacteria.

17 CYTOSKELETON Provides a structural framework for the cell.
Microtubules - long, slender protein tubes Microfilaments - fine protein threads.

18 CILIA & FLAGELLA Function in movement. Composed of proteins.
Cilia - small & hair-like; covers entire surface of the cell. Flagella - long & slender; found singly or in pairs.

19 VACUOLES Store substances inside the cell.
Plant cells have large central vacuoles.

20 PLASTIDS Convert solar energy into chemical energy.
Chloroplast - contain green pigments Chromoplast - synthesize & store other pigments. Leucoplast - store food, such as starches. Plant cells only!!

21 CENTRIOLES Structure that appears during animal cell division

22 CHLOROPLASTS Found in plant cells only
Where the energy of sunlight is converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis Contain green pigment called chlorophyll

23 CELL WALL Only in plant cells Lies outside the cell membrane
Supports and protects the plant

Centrioles Small vacuoles PLANT CELLS Plastids Large central vacuole Cell Wall

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