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Cell Structure & Function

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure & Function"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure & Function
Sections 7-2 and 7-3

2 Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote
eukaryotes: organisms whose cells contain a nucleus prokaryotes: organisms whose cells lack a nucleus

3 Organelle Cytoplasm a tiny structure that performs a specialized function in the cell area between the nucleus and the cell membrane where the organelles are found

4 Comparing Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cells
Nucleus? Eurkaryotic Prokaryotic yes no

5 Comparing Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cells
Cell Membrane? Eurkaryotic Prokaryotic yes yes

6 Comparing Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cells
Cytoplasm? Eurkaryotic Prokaryotic yes yes

7 Comparing Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cells
Organelles? Eurkaryotic Prokaryotic yes no

8 Unicellular or Multicellular?
Comparing Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cells Unicellular or Multicellular? Eurkaryotic Prokaryotic both unicellular

9 Comparing Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cells
Examples Eurkaryotic Prokaryotic plants, animals, fungi, protists bacteria

10 A. Boundary Structures Cell Wall Location: outside the cell membrane
Function: helps to protect & support the cell

11 A. Boundary Structures Cell Wall
found in cells of plants, algae, and some bacteria made of cellulose and lignin

12 A. Boundary Structures Cell Membrane
Function: regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Also aids in protection and support of the cell. Made of lipids with associated proteins and carbohydrates.

13 Structure of the Cell Membrane

14 B. Nucleus organelle that controls the cell’s activities and contains DNA Nuclear envelope (membrane): two membranes that form the boundary around the nucleus

15 B. Nucleus Nucleolus: where ribosomes are made
made of RNA and proteins Chromatin: DNA bound to protein Spread throughout the nucleus Chromosomes: Distinct structures in nucleus that contain the genetic info that must be passed to each new generation of cells

16 C. Energy Producing Organelles
Mitochondria change the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use have a degree of independence from the rest of the cell

17 C. Energy Producing Organelles
Chloroplasts trap the energy of sunlight and convert it into chemical energy found only in plant cells & algae have a degree of independence from the rest of the cell

18 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Ribosomes structures in which proteins are made composed of RNA & protein some are attached to membranes (rough ER); others are free in the cytoplasm

19 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Endoplasmic Reticulum (er) complex network of sacs that transport materials in the cell 2 types: smooth er rough er

20 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Smooth er walls of the sacs look smooth stores special chemicals and enzymes

21 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Rough er involved in synthesis of proteins has ribosomes stuck to surface (make it look “rough”) chemically modifies proteins

22 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Golgi apparatus (body) looks like a flattened stack of membranes (pancakes) modifies, collects, packages, & distributes molecules made at one location of the cell and used at another

23 Golgi apparatus

24 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Lysosomes contain chemicals & enzymes necessary for digesting certain materials in the cell the “clean-up crew” not in plant cells

25 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Vacuoles saclike storage structures store water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates plants have a large central vacuole to store excess water

26 D. Transport/Homeostasis
Plastids store food and pigments 3 examples chloroplasts: store chlorophyll leukoplasts: store starch chromoplasts: store pigment molecules

27 E. Framework Cytoskeleton
variety of filaments and fibers that support cell structure and drive cell movement composed of microtubules and microfilaments

28 Cytoskeleton

29 E. Framework Microtubules hollow tubes aid in support and movement
Cilia: short, thread-like Flagella: long, whip-like Centrioles Located near the nucleus Help organize cell division Not found in plant cells

30 E. Framework Microfilaments long, thin fibers movement & support
movement of cytoplasm

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