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Cell Structure & Function Sections 7-2 and 7-3 Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote  eukaryotes: organisms whose cells contain a nucleus  prokaryotes: organisms.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure & Function Sections 7-2 and 7-3 Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote  eukaryotes: organisms whose cells contain a nucleus  prokaryotes: organisms."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cell Structure & Function Sections 7-2 and 7-3

3 Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote  eukaryotes: organisms whose cells contain a nucleus  prokaryotes: organisms whose cells lack a nucleus

4  a tiny structure that performs a specialized function in the cell  area between the nucleus and the cell membrane  where the organelles are found

5  yes  no

6  yes

7

8  no

9  both  unicellular

10  plants, animals, fungi, protists  bacteria

11 A. Boundary Structures  Cell Wall  Location: outside the cell membrane  Function: helps to protect & support the cell

12 A. Boundary Structures  Cell Wall  found in cells of plants, algae, and some bacteria  made of cellulose and lignin

13 A. Boundary Structures  Cell Membrane  Function: regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Also aids in protection and support of the cell.  Made of lipids with associated proteins and carbohydrates.

14 Structure of the Cell Membrane

15 B. Nucleus  organelle that controls the cell’s activities and contains DNA  Nuclear envelope (membrane): two membranes that form the boundary around the nucleus

16 B. Nucleus  Nucleolus:  where ribosomes are made  made of RNA and proteins  Chromatin:  DNA bound to protein  Spread throughout the nucleus  Chromosomes: genetic info  Distinct structures in nucleus that contain the genetic info that must be passed to each new generation of cells

17 C. Energy Producing Organelles  change the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use  have a degree of independence from the rest of the cell

18 C. Energy Producing Organelles  trap the energy of sunlight and convert it into chemical energy  found only in plant cells & algae  have a degree of independence from the rest of the cell

19 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Ribosomes  structures in which proteins are made  composed of RNA & protein  some are attached to membranes (rough ER); others are free in the cytoplasm

20 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Endoplasmic Reticulum (er)  complex network of sacs that transport materials in the cell  2 types:  smooth er  rough er

21 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Smooth er  walls of the sacs look smooth  stores special chemicals and enzymes

22 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Rough er  involved in synthesis of proteins  has ribosomes stuck to surface (make it look “rough”)  chemically modifies proteins

23 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Golgi apparatus (body)  looks like a flattened stack of membranes (pancakes)  modifies, collects, packages, & distributes molecules made at one location of the cell and used at another

24 Golgi apparatus

25 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Lysosomes  contain chemicals & enzymes necessary for digesting certain materials in the cell  the “clean-up crew”  not in plant cells

26 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Vacuoles  saclike storage structures  store water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates  plants have a large central vacuole to store excess water

27 D. Transport/Homeostasis  Plastids  store food and pigments  3 examples  chloroplasts: store chlorophyll  leukoplasts: store starch  chromoplasts: store pigment molecules

28 E. Framework  Cytoskeleton  variety of filaments and fibers that support cell structure and drive cell movement  composed of microtubules and microfilaments

29 Cytoskeleton

30 E. Framework  Microtubules  hollow tubes  aid in support and movement  Cilia: short, thread-like  Flagella: long, whip-like  Centrioles  Located near the nucleus  Help organize cell division  Not found in plant cells

31 E. Framework  Microfilaments  long, thin fibers  movement & support  movement of cytoplasm


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