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What are the functions of the major cell structures?

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Presentation on theme: "What are the functions of the major cell structures?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What are the functions of the major cell structures?

2 Cell Wall Found in plants, algae, fungi and nearly all prokaryotes
Lie outside the cell membrane Made up of fibers of carbohydrate and protein Plant cell walls made of cellulose MAIN FUNCTION: provide support and protection for the cell

3 Image from: http://users. rcn. com/jkimball. ma

4 Plant Cell Wall Structure
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5 Bacterial cell walls Made up of peptidoglycan
Different structures for different types of bacteria

6 Fungal and Algal cell walls
Fungal cell walls Composed of chitin and cellulose Algal Cell Walls Composed of polysaccharides Which polysaccharides depends on the algae

7 Nucleus Controls most of the cell processes and contains the hereditary information (DNA) Parts of the nucleus Chromatin and chromosomes Nucleolus Nuclear envelope

8 Image from: http://sun. menloschool

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11 Chromatin and Chromosomes
The granular material visible within the nucleus Consists of DNA bound to proteins Chromosomes Chromatin condenses into chromosomes before cell division Contain genetic information

12 Nucleolus Assembly of ribosomes begins here

13 Nuclear envelope Double membrane layer surrounding the cell
Has pores which allows material into and out of the cell

14 Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments that help the cell maintain it’s shape Involved in many forms of cell movement

15 Parts of the Cytoskeleton
Microtubules Hollow tubes of protein that maintain shape Serve as “tracks” for moving organelles Important in cell division Make up centrioles in animal cells Also make up flagella and cilia in some cells

16 Microtubules Images from:

17 Parts of the Cytoskeleton
Microfilaments Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell Much smaller than microtubules

18 Microfilaments

19 Ribosomes Small particles of RNA and protein
Function: assemble proteins Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic ribosomes have different structures

20 Ribosomes consist of a small subunit and a large subunit
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21 Endoplasmic Reticulum
Function: Components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified Rough ER: Synthesis of proteins: chemical modification; Studded with ribosomes Smooth ER: synthesis of lipids

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24 Golgi Apparatus Function: enzymes in the Golgi attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins From Golgi proteins are packaged and sent to their final destinations

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27 Lysosomes Small organelles filled with enzymes
Function: break down lipids, carbohydrates and proteins from food particles Break down old organelles and other cellular debris

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29 Vacuoles Function: Store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates In plants, a large central vacuole filled with fluid is used for support in the cell

30 Image from: http://micro. magnet. fsu

31 Chloroplasts Function: use energy from the sun to make energy-rich food molecules in photosynthesis Bound by two envelope membranes Stacks of photosynthetic membranes contain chlorophyll

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33 Mitochondria Function: use energy from food to make high energy compounds Powerhouse of the cell Bound by two envelope membranes Inner membrane is folded

34 Image from:http://micro. magnet. fsu

35 Organelle DNA Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own DNA
Endosymbiotic theory:mitochondria and chloroplasts the result of endocytosis of bacteria and blue-green algae whichbecame symbiotic

36 Endosymbiotic theory

37 Image from: http://www. msnucleus

38 Venn Diagram Use your notes and the venn diagram handout to compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and plant and animal cells

39 Cell as a Factory See page 182

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