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Cell Structures and Functions By: Katy Nichols and Corey Huffman.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structures and Functions By: Katy Nichols and Corey Huffman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structures and Functions By: Katy Nichols and Corey Huffman

2 Cell Discovery In 1665, Robert Hooke theorized the existence of cells. In 1838 and 1839, two men, Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, developed the cell theory. –1) All organisms are made up of one or more cells. –2) Cells are the units of life, smallest things considered “living.” In 1885, Rudolf Virchow added the third statement of the cell theory. –3) Cells divide from other cells. Robert Hooke’s Microscope

3 Animal Cell Structures Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Cell Nucleus

4 Plasma (Cell) Membrane While small molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide diffuse freely across the plasma membrane, the passage of many larger molecules, including amino acids and sugars, is carefully regulated. Specialized transport proteins accomplish this task. The transport proteins span the plasma membrane, forming an intricate system of pumps and channels through which traffic is conducted. Some substances swirling in the fluid around the cell can enter it only if they bind to and are escorted in by specific transport proteins. In this way, the cell fine-tunes its internal environment. Containment and Separation Material Exchange (homeostasis) Information Detection Identification Attach and Reinforce cell Movement Metabolism

5 Cytoplasm Contains water, salts, organic molecules, and metabolic enzymes Contains Organelles Provides a medium for molecular movement within a cell

6 Other Organelles You will be introduced to in this unit Golgi Apparatus Endoplasmic Reticulum Vacuoles Ribosomes Mitochondrion Cytoskeleton Lysosomes

7 Golgi Apparatus Modifies, sorts, and packages cell products

8 Endoplasmic Reticulum Segregates proteins to be secreted. Site of membrane synthesis.

9 Vacuoles Stores fluid, food, and pigment.

10 Ribosomes Make Proteins. You can find them floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

11 Mitochondrion Uses food to make ATP (energy) They make this energy in the process of cell respiration.

12 Cytoskeleton 1. Microtubules –Help a Cell hold shape –Form Spindle for Chromosome separation during cell division. –Examples include: Centrioles –Organize Microtubules and basal bodies for cilia. Cilia and Flagella –Move cells and fluid past cells. 2. Intermediate Filaments 3. Microfilaments –Move cell and change cell shape.

13 Lysosomes Digest food and worn- out cell components.

14 Nucleus Nuclear Envelope –Separates chromosomes from cytoplasm. Chromosomes –stores genetic information. Nucleolus –Produces Ribosomes

15 Plant Cells Plant cells are fundamentally the same as animal cells, except they have: A Cell Wall Chloroplasts Plastids A larger Vacuole

16 Cell Wall Surrounds, supports, and protects the cell. Only found in plant cells

17 Chloroplasts Carry out Photosynthesis Only found in autotrophs

18 Plastids Make and store food.

19 Plant Vacuoles Provides rigid structure for plant cells. They might store food or any number of nutrients the cell/organism need to survive.


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