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Presentation on theme: "COLONIAL AMERICA Unit IB AP U.S. History."— Presentation transcript:


2 England Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 makes England a superior naval power Population increases Joint-stock companies develop Religious conflicts divide the nation Weak monarchs, civil wars, and revolutions

3 English Colonies Charters Corporate Colony Proprietary Colony
Granted a charter to stockholders Ex. Virginia Proprietary Colony Granted a charter to individual or group Ex. Maryland, Pennsylvania Royal Colony Under direct control of the monarch Ex. New Hampshire Eventually, 8 of the 13 colonies became royal colonies, including Virginia and Massachusetts

4 The First English Colonies
First Attempt: Roanoke in 1585 First Permanent: Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 John Smith – “he that will not work shall not eat” John Rolfe - tobacco

5 Who is this?

6 Oh yeah…Pocahontas

7 Disney’s John Smith

8 Hollywood’s John Smith

9 This is John Smith.

10 Pilgrims Separatists to Holland then head for Virginia
Mayflower takes Separatists and others to Jamestown but weather complicates matters Settlers decide to remain and establish Plymouth

11 Mayflower Compact

12 The Mayflower (II)

13 Wampanoag Dwelling

14 Plymouth Colony

15 Pulpit/Religion

16 Thirteen Colonies

17 New England Massachusetts Bay Colony and Puritans (1630)
John Winthrop and “city upon a hill” Providence, Rhode Island, and Roger Williams (1636) “Wall of separation” Portsmouth and Anne Hutchinson (1638) Antinomianism Hartford, New Haven, Connecticut, and Thomas Hooker ( ) New Hampshire (1679)

18 New England and Religion
Massachusetts under strict Puritanical lifestyle Religious toleration and dissent lead to Rhode Island Halfway Covenant Attempt to increase members Salem Witch Trials ( ) Cotton Mather Spectral evidence

19 Family Life in New England
Families came in groups. More children were born in New England than in Virginia and Maryland. Healthier and less diseases in New England. Long life expectancy in New England

20 Religion Religion dominated New Englanders’ lives.
Only church members could vote in colony elections. Puritan leaders exercised great moral authority. Strict codes of conduct were imposed.

21 Codes of Conduct Fines were imposed of those found guilty of drunkenness or idleness. Premarital sex resulted in public humiliation of the couple Homosexuality was punishable by hanging

22 New England Politics Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)
First written constitution in America Relations with Natives New England Confederation ( ) Defense alliance among Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven King Philip’s (Metacom) War ( ) New England Confederation defeats Wampanoag alliance

23 Middle Colonies Development Economics
New Amsterdam transferred to Duke of York in 1664 to become New York Lands taken from New York to establish New Jersey by 1702 Pennsylvania settled by Quakers Delaware created by Pennsylvania (1702) Economics Develop wheat and corn farms “Bread basket” of the colonies Eventually into manufacturing and trade

24 Pennsylvania William Penn establishes Quaker-based colony in Pennsylvania (1681) Religious Society of Friends aka Quakers Holy Experiment Religious refuge Liberal political ideals Economic success Frame of Government and Charter of Liberties

25 Southern Colonies Maryland (1634) Virginia (1607) Carolinas (1663)
North Carolina (1729) South Carolina (1729) Georgia (1732)

26 Virginia House of Burgesses in 1619 Becomes royal colony in 1624
First legislative assembly in the colonies Becomes royal colony in 1624 Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Inequities between large landowners and western farmers Nathanial Bacon vs. William Berkeley Headright System 50 acres to each paying immigrant or plantation owner who paid for immigrant

27 Maryland Lord Baltimore establishes colony for Catholics
Act of Toleration (1649) Toleration of all Christian sects Death to those who denied Jesus Religious civil war brought control to Protestants

28 Carolinas North Carolina South Carolina Tobacco plantations
Well-established autonomy South Carolina Rice plantations Became heavily dependent on slavery

29 Georgia James Oglethorpe establishes in 1732
Social experiment Defensive buffer to Spanish Florida Debtors colony

30 Colonial Religion Diverse among colonies regarding strict adherence and religious toleration Domination by Protestants; little influence of Anglican Church; other sects and denominations viewed as bizarre The Great Awakening (1730s-1740s) Over time, economics became prominent over religious conviction Jonathan Edwards and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” George Whitefield Development of evangelism and individual faith

31 Colonial Religion

32 Colonial Politics Limited Self-Government Voting Freedom of Expression
Elected bicameral legislative assemblies Governors Local governments Voting Limited to adult male educated and/or property owners Freedom of Expression John Peter Zenger Case (1735)

33 Dominion of New England (1686-1689)
Established by King James II to consolidate colonies Administrative union of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey Governor Edmund Andros Dissolution

34 Colonial Society American Social Structure Opportunity Gender Roles
Wealthy landowners Merchants Small farmers Craftspeople Opportunity Less dependent on heredity Gender Roles Men Patriarchal society, landowners, workers Women Submissive to men but respected, domestic responsibilities, limited to no political rights

35 Colonial American Culture
Becoming American Pragmatism Dominance of English culture Folkways Differed by coast/frontier, New England/Middle/Southern colonies

36 Colonial Culture - The Arts
Architecture Early colonies centered around a church Urban structures typical of English structures Frontier log cabins Painting Portrait painters and landscapes Literature Newspapers Religious sermons, political essays, non-fiction books Poor Richard’s Almanac - Benjamin Franklin

37 Typical Colony Layout

38 Colonial Culture - Education
Limited to wealthy males; females learned domestic chores Higher Education Most established for ministry/theological studies New England Colonies Education by mothers Towns with over 50 families required primary schools; 100, grammar schools Middle Colonies Private and church education Southern Colonies Limited education due to agricultural lifestyle

39 Settlement and Migration
250,000 in 1701 to 2.5 million in 1775 Europeans and Africans along with a high birth rate Reasons: religion; economics; political turmoil English, Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch), Scottish, Irish, Dutch, Swedish  OLD IMMIGRANTS Africans forced to America; suffered discrimination and slave labor

40 Colonial Slavery Indentured servitude Why Slaves?
Increased wages in England Labor shortages lead to importing slaves Cheap labor Dependable work force Slave Rebellions and Reactions Stono Rebellion/Cato Rebellion (1739) New York “Conspiracy” (1741) Slave laws

41 Slave Demographics

42 Colonial Economics Mercantilism Acts of Navigation Molasses Act (1733)
Colonies for the “Mother Country” Acts of Navigation Trade on English ships Imports pass English ports Exports to England Molasses Act (1733) Triangular Trade Middle Passage

43 Colonial Economics Land was “gold”
No established monetary system (gold and silver) Transportation Rivers and coasts Horse and carriage led to taverns and postal services New England Limited land led to shipbuilding, fishing, trading Middle Colonies Wheat and corn fields; manufacturing and trade Southern Colonies Tobacco, rice, indigo plantations based on forced labor


45 PUROPOSE DATE FOUNDER MAJOR EXPORT () - Becomes an English colony
VIRGINIA commercial 1607 Virginia Company John Smith Tobacco PLYMOUTH/ MASSACHUSETTS Religious refuge/ 1620/ 1628 William Bradford/ Massachusetts Bay Company John Winthrop Grain, timber NEW YORK 1613 (1664) Peter Stuveysant (Duke of York) Furs, grain NEW HAMPSHIRE 1623 John Mason Timber, naval stores RHODE ISLAND Religious refuge 1636 Roger Williams Grain CONNECTICUT expansion 1635 Thomas Hooker PENNSYLVANIA 1681 William Penn - Quakers DELAWARE 1638 (1681) Peter Minuit/ William Penn MARYLAND 1634 Lord Baltimore - Catholics NORTH CAROLINA 1663 Anthony Cooper Tobacco, timber, naval stores SOUTH CAROLINA Rice, indigo, naval stores GEORGIA Buffer, experiment 1733 James Oglethorpe Rice, timber, naval stores () - Becomes an English colony

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