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COLONIAL AMERICA Unit IB AP U.S. History. England ► Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 makes England a superior naval power ► Population increases ► Joint-stock.

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Presentation on theme: "COLONIAL AMERICA Unit IB AP U.S. History. England ► Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 makes England a superior naval power ► Population increases ► Joint-stock."— Presentation transcript:

1 COLONIAL AMERICA Unit IB AP U.S. History

2 England ► Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 makes England a superior naval power ► Population increases ► Joint-stock companies develop ► Religious conflicts divide the nation ► Weak monarchs, civil wars, and revolutions

3 English Colonies ► Charters ► Corporate Colony  Granted a charter to stockholders  Ex. Virginia ► Proprietary Colony  Granted a charter to individual or group  Ex. Maryland, Pennsylvania ► Royal Colony  Under direct control of the monarch  Ex. New Hampshire  Eventually, 8 of the 13 colonies became royal colonies, including Virginia and Massachusetts

4 The First English Colonies ► First Attempt: Roanoke in 1585 ► First Permanent: Jamestown, Virginia in 1607  John Smith – “he that will not work shall not eat”  John Rolfe - tobacco

5 Who is this?

6 Oh yeah…Pocahontas

7 Disney’s John Smith

8 Hollywood’s John Smith

9 This is John Smith.

10 Pilgrims ► Separatists to Holland then head for Virginia ► Mayflower takes Separatists and others to Jamestown but weather complicates matters ► Settlers decide to remain and establish Plymouth

11 Mayflower Compact

12 The Mayflower (II)

13 Wampanoag Dwelling

14 Plymouth Colony

15 Pulpit/Religion

16 Thirteen Colonies

17 New England ► Massachusetts Bay Colony and Puritans (1630)  John Winthrop and “city upon a hill” ► Providence, Rhode Island, and Roger Williams (1636)  “Wall of separation” ► Portsmouth and Anne Hutchinson (1638)  Antinomianism ► Hartford, New Haven, Connecticut, and Thomas Hooker ( ) ► New Hampshire (1679)

18 New England and Religion ► Massachusetts under strict Puritanical lifestyle ► Religious toleration and dissent lead to Rhode Island ► Halfway Covenant  Attempt to increase members ► Salem Witch Trials ( )  Cotton Mather  Spectral evidence

19 Family Life in New England ► Families came in groups. ► More children were born in New England than in Virginia and Maryland. ► Healthier and less diseases in New England. ► Long life expectancy in New England

20 Religion ► Religion dominated New Englanders’ lives. ► Only church members could vote in colony elections. ► Puritan leaders exercised great moral authority. ► Strict codes of conduct were imposed.

21 Codes of Conduct ► Fines were imposed of those found guilty of drunkenness or idleness. ► Premarital sex resulted in public humiliation of the couple ► Homosexuality was punishable by hanging

22 New England Politics ► Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)  First written constitution in America ► Relations with Natives  New England Confederation ( ) ► Defense alliance among Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven ► King Philip’s (Metacom) War ( )  New England Confederation defeats Wampanoag alliance

23 Middle Colonies ► Development  New Amsterdam transferred to Duke of York in 1664 to become New York  Lands taken from New York to establish New Jersey by 1702  Pennsylvania settled by Quakers  Delaware created by Pennsylvania (1702) ► Economics  Develop wheat and corn farms ► “Bread basket” of the colonies  Eventually into manufacturing and trade

24 Pennsylvania ► William Penn establishes Quaker-based colony in Pennsylvania (1681) ► Religious Society of Friends aka Quakers ► Holy Experiment  Religious refuge  Liberal political ideals  Economic success  Frame of Government and Charter of Liberties

25 Southern Colonies ► Maryland (1634) ► Virginia (1607) ► Carolinas (1663)  North Carolina (1729)  South Carolina (1729) ► Georgia (1732)

26 Virginia ► House of Burgesses in 1619  First legislative assembly in the colonies ► Becomes royal colony in 1624 ► Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)  Inequities between large landowners and western farmers  Nathanial Bacon vs. William Berkeley ► Headright System  50 acres to each paying immigrant or plantation owner who paid for immigrant

27 Maryland ► Lord Baltimore establishes colony for Catholics ► Act of Toleration (1649)  Toleration of all Christian sects  Death to those who denied Jesus ► Religious civil war brought control to Protestants

28 Carolinas ► North Carolina  Tobacco plantations  Well-established autonomy ► South Carolina  Rice plantations  Became heavily dependent on slavery

29 Georgia ► James Oglethorpe establishes in 1732  Social experiment ► Defensive buffer to Spanish Florida ► Debtors colony

30 Colonial Religion ► Diverse among colonies regarding strict adherence and religious toleration ► Domination by Protestants; little influence of Anglican Church; other sects and denominations viewed as bizarre ► The Great Awakening (1730s-1740s)  Over time, economics became prominent over religious conviction  Jonathan Edwards and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”  George Whitefield  Development of evangelism and individual faith

31 Colonial Religion

32 Colonial Politics ► ► Limited Self-Government   Elected bicameral legislative assemblies   Governors   Local governments ► ► Voting   Limited to adult male educated and/or property owners ► ► Freedom of Expression   John Peter Zenger Case (1735)

33 Dominion of New England ( ) ► ► Established by King James II to consolidate colonies ► ► Administrative union of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey ► ► Governor Edmund Andros ► ► Dissolution

34 Colonial Society ► ► American Social Structure   Wealthy landowners   Merchants   Small farmers   Craftspeople ► ► Opportunity   Less dependent on heredity ► ► Gender Roles   Men ► ► Patriarchal society, landowners, workers   Women ► ► Submissive to men but respected, domestic responsibilities, limited to no political rights

35 Colonial American Culture ► ► Becoming American   Pragmatism ► ► Dominance of English culture ► ► Folkways   Differed by coast/frontier, New England/Middle/Southern colonies

36 Colonial Culture - The Arts ► ► Architecture   Early colonies centered around a church   Urban structures typical of English structures   Frontier log cabins ► ► Painting   Portrait painters and landscapes ► ► Literature   Newspapers   Religious sermons, political essays, non-fiction books   Poor Richard’s Almanac - Benjamin Franklin

37 Typical Colony Layout

38 Colonial Culture - Education ► ► Limited to wealthy males; females learned domestic chores ► ► Higher Education   Most established for ministry/theological studies ► ► New England Colonies  Education by mothers  Towns with over 50 families required primary schools; 100, grammar schools ► ► Middle Colonies   Private and church education ► ► Southern Colonies   Limited education due to agricultural lifestyle

39 Settlement and Migration ► 250,000 in 1701 to 2.5 million in 1775 ► Europeans and Africans along with a high birth rate ► Reasons: religion; economics; political turmoil ► English, Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch), Scottish, Irish, Dutch, Swedish  OLD IMMIGRANTS ► Africans forced to America; suffered discrimination and slave labor

40 Colonial Slavery ► Indentured servitude ► Why Slaves?  Increased wages in England  Labor shortages lead to importing slaves  Cheap labor  Dependable work force ► Slave Rebellions and Reactions  Stono Rebellion/Cato Rebellion (1739)  New York “Conspiracy” (1741)  Slave laws

41 Slave Demographics

42 Colonial Economics ► Mercantilism  Colonies for the “Mother Country” ► Acts of Navigation  Trade on English ships  Imports pass English ports  Exports to England ► Molasses Act (1733) ► Triangular Trade  Middle Passage

43 Colonial Economics ► Land was “gold” ► No established monetary system (gold and silver) ► Transportation  Rivers and coasts  Horse and carriage led to taverns and postal services ► New England  Limited land led to shipbuilding, fishing, trading ► Middle Colonies  Wheat and corn fields; manufacturing and trade ► Southern Colonies  Tobacco, rice, indigo plantations based on forced labor

44

45 PUROPOSEDATEFOUNDERMAJOR EXPORT VIRGINIAcommercial1607Virginia Company John Smith Tobacco PLYMOUTH/ MASSACHUSETTS Religious refuge/ commercial 1620/ 1628 William Bradford/ Massachusetts Bay Company John Winthrop Grain, timber NEW YORKcommercial1613 (1664)Peter Stuveysant (Duke of York) Furs, grain NEW HAMPSHIREcommercial1623John MasonTimber, naval stores RHODE ISLANDReligious refuge1636Roger WilliamsGrain CONNECTICUTexpansion1635Thomas HookerGrain PENNSYLVANIAReligious refuge1681William Penn - Quakers Grain DELAWAREcommercial1638 (1681)Peter Minuit/ William Penn Grain MARYLANDReligious refuge1634Lord Baltimore - Catholics Tobacco NORTH CAROLINAcommercial1663Anthony CooperTobacco, timber, naval stores SOUTH CAROLINAcommercial1663Anthony CooperRice, indigo, naval stores GEORGIABuffer, experiment1733James OglethorpeRice, timber, naval stores () - Becomes an English colony


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