2Nile River Valley and Nile Delta The Nile Valley:a) Had rich, dark soil from the Nile valley to the Deltab) Was a natural settling place for the nomads. Why would this be?c) Protected people from enemies by means of the desert and cataractsNile River Valley and Nile Delta
3Uniting Egypt: Monarchies: unrestricted rule by the king Dynasties: a line of rulers from one familyNarmer: King of Upper Egypt, he conquered lowerEgypt and set up a government that ruled from 3,000 B.C. to 332 B.C
4Three Great Periods of Ancient Egypt: The Old Kingdom: 2,700 B.C. to 2,200 B.C.Middle Kingdom: 2,200 B.C to 1,600 B.C.The New Kingdom: 1,600 to 945 B.C.
5The Old Kingdom: 2,700 B.C. to 2,200 B.C. The king was regarded as a god. It was a religious Theocracy (he was both political and religious leader).There was also a bureaucracy: a group of officials was delegated by the king to help carry out all responsibilities.The Pyramids: eternal resting place from which to guide the kingdom after death.
6The Middle Kingdom: 2,200 B.C to 1,600 B.C. Time of upheaval and violenceEventually, Egyptians were conquered by Hyskos from Asia, due to their bronze weapons and horse drawn chariots. Hyskos ruled for about 100 years.
7The New Kingdom: 1,600 B.C. to 945 B.C. Ahmose, an Egyptian prince, raised an army and drove the Hyskos out of Egypt in 1,600 B.C.He named himself Pharaoh- “Great house of the king”
9Family Life In ancient Egypt family life began early. Men and women tended to marry quite young in ancient Egypt and everyday life reflected their commitment to the sanctity of the family unit.Divorce was known to have existed but does not appear to have been that prevalent or common.Marriages were generally polygamous; at least in the royal and noble circles, with the husband having several wives.
10Role of WomenThe role of women in ancient Egyptian society is often a surprise. It is usually assumed that women were relegated to the role of a second class citizen, when actually the opposite was true.Women were allowed to own property, testify in court and conduct business dealings. More than one woman even ruled the Egyptian land as pharaoh.While women were highly regarded and given rights that most of their contemporaries in other lands could only dream of, daily life in ancient Egypt for women also involved responsibilities for most of the duties of the home.It was the woman's responsibility to raise the children, see to the home and prepare the meals.
11Social Stratification Upper Classes: royalty, nobles, and priestsThey controlled religious and political affairsThey lived in cities or on estates; they had elegant gardens, pools, and orchardsNobles often underwent the time-consuming process of mummification after death.
12Social Stratification Middle Classes: artisans, scribes, merchants, tax collectorsThey carried out the business activities of EgyptThey lived in cities, in comfortable, but not elegant homesThe daily life of people of ancient Egypt was very involved with the various gods and goddesses who ruled Egyptian mythology.It was quite acceptable to worship more than one deity and most towns and villages throughout Egypt did so, although a city would normally claim a patron god. Temples were built and scattered throughout Egypt, reflecting a religion that involved frequent rites, rituals and practices.
13Social Stratification Peasant life in ancient Egypt was not always pleasant.Most peasants made their living off the land through agricultural means. Grain, particularly wheat, was a staple crop of life in ancient Egypt.As a result of few grazing lands and the expense of meat, most peasants subsisted off a diet of ground wheat foods, subsidized with meager vegetables.The Egyptians were one of the first people to introduce the use of the ox-drawn plow; however the work of plowing, planting and harvesting would have still been very difficult.Taxes were also imposed on the crops, which would have also made it difficult for most peasant families to move beyond their poor means.
14Ramses II (Ramses the Great) Ramses the Great ruled for 67 yearsHe erected many monuments to himselfHe lived to be nearly 90 years old (back in 1,237 B.C.)The process of his mummification lasted over 100 daysAfter his death, Egypt went into decline
16Writing: Hieroglyphics -Picture symbols etched onto slate or on the inner walls of pyramidsYour name in Hieroglyphics
17Art and Architecture Detailed painting Pyramids Hieroglyphics MummificationTombsClay paintingPottery
18Contributions of ancient Egyptians: Mathematics- Pyramids and monuments could not have been built without knowledge of math.365-day calendar- based on the moon and SiriusOx-drawn plowMedical Expertise: Human Anatomy, embalming,Doctors, splints, bandaging, etcPainting, pyramids, pottery, etchings
19References Photos: Egypt People: www.ancientnewkingdom.com Maps: Art Photos: