Old KingdomMiddle KingdomNew Kingdom Dates & Duration When/How long did it last- # of years Advancements/ Accomplishments Internal Power Structure Who had power? Was anyone gaining or losing power? Reason for decline Why did it end?
Old KingdomMiddle KingdomNew Kingdom Dates & Duration About 500 years 2700-2200 B.C.E. About 405 years 2055-1650 B.C.E. About 480 years 1550-1070 B.C.E. Advancements/ accomplishments Great Pyramid for King Khufu Pharaohs make public works projects to help people/conquered nubia Pharaohs extend territory to land along Mediterranean Sea & to Nubia Empire begins Internal Power Structure Pharaoh rule but Bureaucracy helps Pharaohs ruled, but were weakened by nobles and priests Pharaohs had absolute power for a time Local governors- sons & bros to Thebes Reason for decline Power Struggles disorder Power Struggles = Invasion of Hyksos From Asia w/ Chariots Invaders- Nubia, Persia, Assyria & Revolt
End of the Old Kingdom- Relief showing men, women, and children suffering from the effects of severe famine
PHARAOHS CROWNED WITH SHEPHERD’S CROOK AND FLAIL Middle Kingdom The Middle Kingdom was characterized by a new concern of the pharaohs for the people. In the Old Kingdom, the pharaoh had been viewed as an inaccessible god-king. Now he was portrayed as the shepherd of his people.
Tutankhamen- Boy King Polytheism comes back Tomb found 1922 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/20 04/11/photogalleries/king_tut/
Pharaohs of the New Kingdom Hatshepsut- c. 1503-1482 B.C.E. - Female, ruled after husband Thutmose II died - Married to half brother - Almost erased from history by stepson
New Kingdom Pharaohs Amenhotep IV- 1380-1362 B.C.E. –Not a good leader –Changed religion to monotheism temporarily –Aten the sun god worshipped –Capital from Thebes to Aketaton –Changes name to Akhenaton “he who is pleasing to Aten”
Ramses II- 1279-1213 B.C.E. Last strong pharaoh before decline Great temples and monuments Wages war against invaders- Hittites
Egypt after decline Dominated by outsiders & finally Macedonia and Alexander the Great Cleopatra VII tries to get back independence, but fails and Rome takes over in the 1st century B.C.
Egyptian Social Classes In your notes draw a pyramid and label it. Use the information on p.41
Daily Life Marriage –Married young and arranged –Children especially males valued Roles of Men and Women –Men in charge but… Women could own property and inheritances Could own businesses 4 Women Pharaohs
Writing Hieroglyphics vs. Hieratic Script Upper class boys train to be scribes starting at age 10 Rosetta Stone
Art & Science Calculate area and volume Accurate 365 day calendar Embalming Medical knowledge- splints, bandages, treatments for disease