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The Colonization of the Americas

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1 The Colonization of the Americas

2 I. Spanish Colonization
A. the conquistadores: Spanish soldiers who led military expeditions to the Americas 1. Hernan Cortez: 1519, defeated Aztecs at Tenochtitlan and King Montezuma was killed 2. Ponce de Leon: 1513, 1521, Florida 3. Francisco Pizarro: 1531, conquered the Inca of Peru

3 4. Hernando de Soto: 1539, crossed Mississippi River
5. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado: , explored North American West, including the Grand Canyon 6. Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo: 1542, explored California

4 II. The Governing of New Spain
A. Council of the Indies: , oversaw the government in Spanish America 2. wrote laws 3. appointed officials and oversaw their conduct 4. judged legal cases B. Viceroys: 1. Peru 2. New Spain

5 C. Settlements 1. Pueblos: small villages 2. Presidios: military forts 3 Missions: religious settlements

6 D. The Encomienda System
1. encomenderos: Spanish settlers given the right given to the Spanish settlers to tax and to demand labor from Indians in exchange for converting them to Christianity, protecting them from attack, and teaching them various skills 2. in the Caribbean, however, the system did not work so plantations began to import African slaves

7 E. Social Classes 1. peninsulares: European Born 2. criollos: Europeans born in New Spain 3. mestizos: mixed ancestry 4. Indians

8 F. Expanding the borders
1. the Southeast a. St. Augustine, Florida: , became the first permanent European settlement in North America b. Georgia missions


10 Castillo de San Marcos

11 Castillo de San Marcos

12 4. El Camino Real, the King’s Road: connected communities in New Spain
2. the Southwest a. Santa Fe, New Mexico: , b. El Paso, Texas: 1659 3. California 4. El Camino Real, the King’s Road: connected communities in New Spain San Miguel Chapel 1610 Palace of the Governors 1610

13 Palace of the Governors
San Miguel Chapel 1610 Palace of the Governors 1610 San Miguel Chapel Palace of the Governors

14 III. Religious and Political Changes in Europe
A. The Protestant Reformation 1. began in German towns in the 1520s 2. violence occurred in many countries, i.e. the French Huguenots 3. Henry VIII: founded the Anglican Church in England Catherine of Aragon, married to Authur: produced stillborn daughter, son (died at 52 days), daughter Mary, miscarriage, two other pregnancies Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleaves Kathryn Howard Katherine Parr

15 Catherine of Aragon, married to Authur: produced stillborn daughter, son (died at 52 days), daughter Mary, miscarriage, two other pregnancies Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleaves Kathryn Howard Katherine Parr

16 4. Queen Elizabeth: his daughter. a. promoted peace and tolerance
4. Queen Elizabeth: his daughter a. promoted peace and tolerance between religions. b. sea dogs: English pirates encouraged to attack Spanish treasure ships c. Sir Francis Drake: most successful sea dog; raided New Spain; first Englishman to circumnavigate the world ACTIVITY:


18 d. the Spanish Armada: 1588, ships and 30, soldiers to invade England and overthrow Elizabeth and the Anglican Church. 2. defeated by the smaller English navy aided by sea dogs, merchants, and fisherman


20 B. The Decline of Spain 1. the defeat of the Spanish Armada 2. high inflation caused by large amounts of silver from the New World 3. purchasing cheaper foreign goods and food 4. as the country grew less wealthy, Spaniards could no longer afford to purchase goods from other countries nor could they produce their own

21 IV. New France A. Florida: 1565, destroyed by the Spanish B. Acadia: 1604 C. Quebec: 1608, founded by Samuel de Champlain D. Montreal: 1642, became a center for the Great Lakes fur trade

22 E. Louisiana: 1650s 1. Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet: explored the Mississippi River 2. Robert de La Salle: Claimed Louisiana for Louis XIV 3. New Orleans:



25 F. by the mid 1700s, France claimed territory which included Canada and the interior of north America from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains

26 G. Claims aided by 1. French settlers such as fur traders and farmers 2. widely separated communities, fortresses (Detroit, St. Louis, New Orleans) missions and trading posts

27 H. Relations with Native Americans:
1. tolerated Indian social customs 2. intermarried 3. converted them to Catholicism 4. Allied with the Algonquian and Huron I. Problems: 1. Had trouble attracting settlers 2. hated by the Iroquois

28 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER V. New Netherland A. land between the Delaware and Connecticut Rivers (present-day Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, and New York) B. the Dutch West India Company: 1624, sent 30 families to settle the area C. New Amsterdam: 1626, purchased Manhattan from a local tribe

29 D. patroon system: a wealthy landlord
D. patroon system: a wealthy landlord received a large grant of land to rent to other settlers and in return helped them survive E. practiced religious tolerance and allowed other European nationalities to settle

30 VI. New Sweden: A. located along the Delaware River B. built log cabins C. established farms and traded with natives for furs

31 D. battled with New Netherland over the region
E. Peter Stuyvesant: 1655, governor of New Netherland who seized New Sweden from the Swedish

32 VII. Early English Settlements
A. Sir Humphrey Gilbert: 1578, obtained a charter for a colony in Newfoundland but drowned B. Sir Walter Raleigh 1. named Virginia 2. Roanoke: 1586, colony in Virginia which did not succeed

33 C. John White: , resettled Roanoke 2. Virginia Dare: his granddaughter, the first English child born in the colonies , White returned from England to find the buildings still standing but no colonists

34 VIII. The Virginia Colony
A. Attracting settlers 1. economic hardship in England 2. enclosure 3. population increase 4. unemployment rose

35 B. The London Company 1. Jamestown: April 26, 1607, 105 ill- prepared male settlers arrived 2. 2/3’s of the settlers died

36 3. Capt. John Smith:. gained control of. the. settlement and
3. Capt. John Smith: gained control of the settlement and forced them to grow crops 4. Powhatan: exchanged goods with the English and taught them how to grow crops 5. starving time: 1610, only sixty colonists remained

37 6. Sir Thomas Gates: 1611, new governor who established strict laws
7. John Rolfe: 1612, introduced a sweeter West Indian tobacco

38 8. headright system: 1618, each colonist
8. headright system: 1618, each colonist who paid his/her own way to Virginia received 50 acres of land plus 50 acres for each additional person 9. Daily life: a. men outnumbered women b. focused on shelter, food c. produced homemade products d. reading and religion taught at home

39 10. Powhatan wars: a. English population growth led to settlers claiming land reserved for Native Americans b. conflicts continued even after treaty

40 11. Labor issues: a. indentured servants: four to seven year labor contract b. Africans: 1. arrived aboard a Dutch ship in 1619 2. some were indentured; others slaves 3. More slaves purchased once death rates and prices declined

41 12. House of Burgesses: Virginia’s elected assembly
a. 1619, all men aged 17 and older could vote b. Sir William Berkeley: 1642-late s, governor c. by 1670, 1. vote restricted to landowners 2. elections were rare 3. backcountry settlers had no representation

42 13. Bacon’s Rebellion: a. tensions grew between Natives Americans and settlers over the land b. Native Americans killed a servant c. settlers retaliated d. Berkeley responded cautiously to the violence e. the settlers responded by rebelling against the colonial government f. slaves, freed slaves, and former servants led by wealthy landowner Nathaniel Bacon g burned Jamestown and drove the governor into exile h. then Bacon died; twenty-three of his followers were hanged f. Berkeley regained control and negotiated with the Native Americans to open more land for settlement

43 IX. The Pilgrim’s Experience
A. Pilgrims: a sect of Puritans B. Immigrated from England to the Netherlands in 1607 C. returned to England to apply for permission to settle in Virginia D. William Bradford: governor E. left aboard the Mayflower on September 16, F. Mayflower Compact: self-government G. landed on Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts H. Samoset: a Pemaquid Indian who gave information about the peoples and places surrounding Plymouth I. Squanto: A Pawtuxet Indian who showed them how to farm and helped them established peaceful relations with the Wampanoag Indians

44 X. The Great Migration A. Problems in England 1. economic repression 2. King Charles I raised taxes 3. Charles then dissolved Parliament 4. the Anglican Church became less tolerant of religious dissenters B. between , 40,000 English men, women, and children migrated to the colonies

45 XI. The New England Colonies
A. The Massachusetts Bay Colony , company colony 2. established by Puritans for religious freedom 3. John Winthrop: the governor 4. seventeen ships and 1,000 people (mostly families) 5. several settlements quickly 6. General Court: legislative body which became a bicameral legislature in 7. white male church members could vote 8. town meeting: discussion of issues of local interest

46 9. daily life: a. Religion: structured with weekly church gatherings b. economy: skilled laborers, successful farmers of food crops; also fishing and trading c. family: married with five to seven children d. education: , first public law regulating education 2. schools established in all towns with fifty or more households 3. Harvard College founded in 1636 4. literacy high: 70% men, 45% women

47 10. Salem Witch Trials a. Tituba: b. over 100 colonists accused c. 19 people executed d. one year later, many people involved in the trials publicly apologized for their participation in the prosecution

48 B. New Hampshire/Maine , 1629 proprietary colony 2. established for farming 3. few settlers until Hutchinson’s followers began to settle in the area 4. New Hampshire became a separate colony in 1679 5. Maine remained part of Massachusetts until 1820

49 C. Connecticut , 1662 royal colony 2. established for trade; farming; religious freedom 3. Thomas Hooker: led Massachusetts settlers to form a new colony 4. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: created a government similar to Massachusetts Bay but a larger proportion of men are given the right to vote and hold office

50 D. Rhode Island , 1644 royal colony 2. established for religious freedom 3. Roger Williams: a. banished from Massachusetts b. supported the separation of the church from politics, religious tolerance for all members of the community, and fair dealing with Indians

51 XII. The Middle Colonies
A. Delaware , 1664, 1703 2. established for trade by the Swedish 3. became an English colony in 1664 4. was part of the Pennsylvania colony from 1682 to 1776 5. operated with a separate legislative assembly as of 1703

52 B. Pennsylvania , 1682 proprietary colony 2. established for religious freedom by the Swedish 3. land granted to William Penn in 1681 4. first Quaker colony, 1682 5. Penn attracted settlers from all across Europe 6. Frame of Government: representative assembly 7. established Philadelphia

53 8. paid the Natives for the land and was well respected by them
9. Charter of Liberties: 1701, set up a single representative assembly with a separate representative assembly for the lower three counties

54 C. New York , 1664 proprietary colony 2. established for trade by the Dutch 3. Peter Stuyvesant: gained control of the colony in 1645 4. Duke of York: Charles II’s brother took control of the colony from Stuyvesant

55 5. diverse colony with Dutch,. Scandinavians, Germans, French,
5. diverse colony with Dutch, Scandinavians, Germans, French, Native Americans 6. governed by a governor and council 7. power remained concentrated in the hands of large landowners and York’s political supporters 8. tensions were high between the landed and the remainder 9. a growing a generally prosperous colony

56 D. New Jersey , 1664 2. established by the Dutch for religious freedom; farming 3. became a proprietary English colony in 1664 4. proprietors were political supporters of James, Duke of York 5. became a royal colony in 1702 6. also ethnically and religiously diverse 7. mainly settled by small farmers 8. no natural harbor

57 XIII. The Southern Colonies
A. Virginia proprietary colony 2. established to establish a permanent colony and search for riches

58 B. Maryland ; proprietary colony 2. established by Catholics for religious freedom; farming 3. Lord Baltimore: granted charter as sole proprietor 4. Leonard Calvert: governor 5. a significant majority of colonists were wealthy landowners 6. Catholics were quickly outnumbered 7. Toleration Act of 1649: made restricting the rights of Christians a crime 8. Maryland Civil War: 1655, temporarily unseated the proprietary government 9. eventually used a headright system to lure settlers

59 C. Carolinas proprietary colony 2. established for trade; farming 3. Charles Town built as capital between the Ashley and Cooper Rivers 4. in the northern region were mainly subsistence farmers 5. in the southern region an elaborate plantation system was established 6. tensions remained between the northern and southern regions, smaller farmers and larger planters, immigrants from Barbados and those from England 7. in 1729 North and South Carolina became two separate royal colonies

60 D. Georgia , proprietary 2. established as a relief for poor people and a buffer against Spanish Florida 3. James Oglethorpe: MP and military hero a. limited size of landholdings b. prohibited Africans, rum, and Catholics 4. Savannah: fortified town at the mouth of the Savannah River

61 5. the restrictions were eased over time as the colony failed to be successful
6. Became a royal colony

62 XIV. Caribbean Colonization
A. native populations were decimated by European epidemics B. More than half of the English migrants settled on the islands of the Caribbean and Bermuda C. claimed by Spain D. only Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico had substantial Spanish settlement E. English colonists were always vulnerable to Spanish attack F. economy based on exporting crops such as tobacco and cotton G. sugar was the most lucrative crop

63 H. planters relied on slave labor
I. by the late 1690s, Africans outnumbered white settlers four to one J. at least seven major slave revolts K. little society created because the primary concern was profit

64 Works Cited Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey. Vol 1. Boston: McGraw-Hill College, 1999. Stuckey, Sterling, and Linda Kerrigan Salvucci. Call to Freedom: Beginnings to Austin, Texas: Holt, Rinhart, and Winston, 2000.

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