Presentation on theme: "WarmUp #4 Read “The Battle of Stalingrad” on pgs. 846- 848. 1. Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point in the European Theater of World War II?"— Presentation transcript:
WarmUp #4 Read “The Battle of Stalingrad” on pgs. 846- 848. 1. Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point in the European Theater of World War II? 2. What was the significance of Germany attacking the Soviet city of Stalingrad? 3. What did the Germans lack as the battle neared its conclusion? 4. How many Soviet lives were lost on the battlefield? 5. What was Adolf Hitler’s position on surrender?
The European Theater (1939-1941) German blitzkrieg (lightning war) conquered Poland in 4 weeks by using armored tanks with air support to defend vs. blitzkrieg, the French built concrete & steel fortifications called the Maginot Line May 1940: Germany attacked through Belgium & Luxembourg (Ardennes Forest) & took the French & British by surprise Germany trapped the Allied forces around Dunkirk (on coast of France)…saved by the British navy! June 22, 1940: France signed armistice (6 weeks) –Germany directly controlled most of France…& setup puppet government called Vichy to govern the rest
Battle of Britain (Fall 1940) Great Britain appealed to the United States, but the U.S. was very isolationist August 1940: Germany began the Battle of Britain by bombing British airfields & factories –the British retaliated by bombing Berlin, making Hitler so angry that the Luftwaffe switched from bombing military targets to bombing London the British rebuilt the Royal Air Force (RAF) & regained control of airspace…while people in the “Tube”! Germany attacked USSR (June 22, 1941) –originally planned for Spring 1941, but delayed –successful, but Soviets regrouped as Germans unable to cope with the Russian winters
The Pacific Theater (1941-1942) December 7, 1941: Japan attacks the United States’ naval base at Pearl Harbor (territory of Hawaii) –also attacked European colonies in Southeast Asia Japanese thought that if the American fleet in Pacific was destroyed, the United States would not effectively respond because of their weaknesses –the attack unified U.S. with the Allied Powers! as part of alliance, Germany declared war on the U.S.! 1942: Japan controlled all of Southeast & East Asia –U.S. surrenders the Philippines –Bataan Death March (Philippines): 70,000 prisoners (including many U.S. soldiers) captured, beaten & marched to prison camps
The European Theater (1942-1945) United States, Great Britain & Soviet Union put aside their political differences to concentrate on war efforts –required unconditional surrender from the Axis Powers –Stalin demanded that United States & Great Britain open up a “second front” vs. the Axis Powers 1942: Gen. Edwin Rommel “the Desert Fox”: Afrika Korps (Germany) controlled Egypt, hoping to cut off oil to Allies British forces were able to stop Rommel at the Battle of El-Alamein Nov. 1942-Feb. 1943: Battle of Stalingrad (Soviet Union) –Germany invaded city because major industrial center –the Soviets counterattacked…handing a major loss to Germany’s best regiment
The Turning Point in the European Theater June 6, 1944 D-Day: Allied Powers (under the command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower) land on the beaches of Normandy, France August 1944: Allies liberate Paris! March 1945: Allies invade Germany, with assistance from resistance fighters April 1945: Soviet troops reach Berlin first April 30, 1945: Adolf Hitler commits suicide at Eagle’s Nest May 7, 1945 V-E Day (Victory in Europe): Germany surrenders to Allied forces!
The Pacific Theater (1942-1945) June 6, 1942 Battle of Midway: turning point of Pacific, as United States issues decisive defeat to Japan Allied strategy of “island-hopping”: push Japanese back to Japan! –major (& costly) victories at Iwo Jima & Okinawa April 12, 1945: Franklin D. Roosevelt dies after 82 days as Vice President, Harry S. Truman becomes president…must decide how to proceed with Manhattan Project (creation of atomic weapons) Pres. Truman decides to use the bombs to receive unconditional surrender from Japanese –August 6, 1945: Hiroshima –August 9, 1945: NagasakiNagasaki August 15, 1945: V-J Day (Victory over Japan)