13 D. Imperialism (Axis Aggressions) 1931 Japan takes Manchuria and port of Shanghai1935 Italy invades Ethiopia1936 Germany retakes Saar Valley (Rhineland)1938 Germany annexes Austria1938 Munich Conference- Germany gains Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia
14 Aggressions cont’d 1937 Japan invades China 1939 Germany takes rest of CzechoslovakiaGermany helps Spanish fascists in Spanish Civil War- Franco comes to power.1939 Hitler and Stalin sign Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression PactSeptember 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland. World War II officially starts.
16 A. Germany 1939-1942 Blitzkrieg tactics By Fall of 1940, Germany had conquered most of western Europe.Began the “Blitz” of Britain to try and remove them from the war.June 1941 Germany violated Non-Aggression Pact and invaded Russia (Operation Barbarossa)
20 B. Japan1937 Invaded China1941 Bombed Pearl Harbor/ Invaded Philippines and Vietnam1942 Invaded Singapore and islands south to New Guinea thus threatening Australia1942 Also took some Aleutian Islands (US territory)
22 C. Axis Successes by 1942Held all of western and most of eastern EuropeControlled most of the Mediterranean areaNorth AfricaMost of China and Southeast AsiaControlled large areas of Russia
23 III. Allied Turning Points 1942-44 1942 Battle of MidwayPartisans in EuropeAugust 1942 StalingradSpring 1943 US and British forces defeat Germany in North AfricaAugust 1943 Invade SicilyFall of 1943 Invade ItalySummer 1943 Battle of KurskJune 6, 1944 Normandy InvasionWinter 1944 Battle of the Bulge
32 A. Allied Victory Europe After the battles of the Bulge and Kursk, the German army was on the run.Massive Allied bombing of Germany in 1944 and 1945Hitler commits suicide in April 1945 as Soviets enter Berlin.
34 B. Allied Victory JapanAfter Midway, General Douglas MacArthur begins “island hopping” campaign.By Spring of 1945, Allied forces had recaptured most of Pacific and after battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa could now launch bombing raids on Japan.August 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroyed by atomic bombs.
38 V. Conferences1941 Atlantic- Churchill and Roosevelt meet to set war aims1943 Tehran- Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill meet to discuss opening second front in Europe and to agree to cooperate in war effort.Feb Yalta- Big Three meet again to discuss post war Europe, UN creation, agreement to defeat Japan together.July 1945 Potsdam- Big Three (Truman now president of US) re-affirm Yalta agreements, US hints at atomic bomb development.
39 VI. Results of WWII 2191 days of warfare 17 million soldiers killed 44 million civilians killed-12 million in Nazi death campsMost expensive war in historyUnited Nations formed2 power world emerges- US vs. USSRCold War begins