Presentation on theme: "Revision Roberta Mark, Andrei Berezin. The Norman Invasion In 1016 England was conquered by Canute. After Canute’s death, the throne was passed to."— Presentation transcript:
Revision Roberta Mark, Andrei Berezin
The Norman Invasion In 1016 England was conquered by Canute. After Canute’s death, the throne was passed to Edward the Confessor. Three men claimed the throne of England after Edward’ s death – Harold Godwin, William and Harald Hardraada. 1066 – the Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror became king.
William the Conqueror 1086 – the Domesday Book French became the language of aristocracy Nobles got land in different parts of the country Feudal system He had three sons: Robert, William (Rufus) and Henry William died in 1087
Henry, Matilda and Stephen Henry was crowned king. After his death, his daughter Matilda fought with Stephen of Blois (Henry’s nephew). Finally, in 1153 they agreed that Stephen could keep the throne. He died the following year. Henry II became the first unquestioned ruler of the England throne in 1154.
Henry II His empire stretched from the Scottish borders to the Pyrenees. He and his wife Eleanor had two sons – Richard and John Henry II appointed Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162. Becket was murdered in 1170. 1189 Henry died broken and disappointed.
Richard the Lionheart Henry II was followed by his son, Richard. He reigned for 10 years. He was a good soldier and had a nickname “Coeur de Lion”. He was well educated, but spoke little English. Richard was killed in 1199.
John I (Lackland) John I inherited the throne of England. He was a very unpopular king. He was called John Lackland. In 1215 John I signed an agreement Magna Carta. During his reign the the first stone bridge across the river Thames was completed in 1206.
Henry III, Edward I and Edward II John’s son Henry (III) reigned for a long time (1216-1272). The first parliament was summoned in 1265. His son Edward I succeeded him and brought together the first REAL parliament. Edward I and the king of France Philip IV decided to marry their children – Isabella and Edward II. Isabella forced Edward to abdicate in favour of his 14-year old son (Edward III) in 1327. In 1330 he seized power.
Edward III Edward III (1312-1377) was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. He remained on the throne for 50 years. His reign was dominated by the 100 Years’ War (1337- 1453)
The 100 Years’ War The war began well for England. In 1431 Henry VI (of Lancaster) was crowned King of France. Joan of Arc was captured by the English and burned at the stake. The French went on winning and the war ended in 1453. During the war the kings and noblemen of England began to speak English. The bible was translated into English.
The Age of Chivalry, the Poor in Revolt Edward III and his eldest son Edward or the Black Prince became the symbols of the “code of chivalry”. Edward III was the founder of the Order of the Garter (1348) Honi soit qui mal y pense. Edward III was followed by Richard II, his grandson, who managed to calm down the angry crowd after the Peasants’ Revolt.
The Crisis of Kingship When the 100 Years’ War ended in 1453, the English noblemen returned to England. Two groups of nobles, Lancastrians and Yorkists, fought for the control of the throne. (In 1377 Richard II became king, hi uncle John, the duke of Lancaster wanted his son Henry (IV) to be king, there was also another possible successor – the son of his uncle Edmund, the Duke of York. Henry took the crown by force). The House of York – white rose, Lancaster – red rose.
The Wars of the Roses The war began in 1455 with the battle of Saint Albans. Edward of York became king as Edward IV. His son Edward V succeeded him at the age of 12. Richard, uncle of the young king had Edward and his little brother killed and became king Richard III. Richard III died in 1485. He was the last king of the House of York, the last of the Plantagen et dynasty.
Tudors At Bosworth Field Henry Tudor defeated the royal army. He was crowned King Henry VII – the first ruler of the Tudor dynasty. Henry married Edward IV’s daughter and united the rival houses of Lancaster and York.