Presentation on theme: "PLANTAGENET KINGS 1154-1485 The Plantagenet Kings include those of the Houses of Anjou, Lancaster, and York."— Presentation transcript:
1PLANTAGENET KINGSThe Plantagenet Kings include those of the Houses of Anjou, Lancaster, and York
2House of AnjouWhat were the legacies of the Angevin English monarchs?How did the actions of the Angevin monarchs shape the development of Parliament and an English nation?How did the actions of the Angevin monarchs impact European conflict?
3HENRY II (House of Anjou) r. 1154-1189 First unopposed rise to power since 1066.Controlled a vast empire—most of British Isles and parts of FranceMarried to Eleanor of Aquitaine (French)Acquired Ireland with the help of Pope Adrian IV (the only English pope). Pope recognized his authority overLaid down the foundations of English Common Law—consistent and accessibleQuarrel with Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury (Becket thought the Church should be independent from royal power), led to the clergyman’s murder in Canterbury Cathedral; 1170.
4Good marriage w/ Henry II until it was soured by his promiscuity ELEANORGood marriage w/ Henry II until it was soured by his promiscuityEncouraged her sons’ rebellion against Henry IIHenry crushed the rebellion and put Eleanor under house arrest
5RICHARD I (THE LION HEART) r. 1189 - 1199 Son of Henry II. Kept Henry’s empire intactForced his father from power with the help of French Philip IIThird CrusadeAbsentee KingKnown for the slaughter of 2,500 men women and children at Acre.Captured in GermanyIn his absence, legendary Robin Hood poached in Sherwood Forest.
6JOHN rHas possibly the worst reputation of any English kingMAGNA CARTA, Runnymede 1215.Result of disagreements with barons over taxationLimits on royal power—subjected monarch to the law of the land.Named king of Ireland while still prince.Lost Normandy, Anjou and most of Aquitaine to the French king, Philip II.
8HENRY III rKing at age 9; regents reestablished order for him (following father, John)Married Eleanor of ProvenceMagna Carta reasserted.Papal control of appointments under Henry III would set the stage for support of the English Reformation under Henry VIII.Oversaw the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey
9EDWARD I (Longshanks) r. 1272 - 1307 Son of Henry IIISurveyed the country and codified lawsIntroduced the “Model Parliament”Originally called to approve campaigns in Scotland and FranceBattled William Wallace and Robert Bruce of Scotland regarding Edward’s supremacy over the Scottish kingConquered Wales and made his eldest son the first Prince of Wales—this practice still continues today.
10EDWARD II r. 1307 – 1327 Defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn Edward should have won—outnumbered the ScotsLead to Scottish independenceParliament gained power through the Ordinances of 13111326- Deposed by wife Isabella (daughter of Philip IV of France), and her lover, Roger Mortimer (Edward’s political rival)1327- Murdered in Berkeley Castle where he had been imprisoned
11EDWARD III r. 1327 - 1377 Took the throne at 14 3 years later, he arrested his mother (now known as the “She-Wolf of France”) and her lover, Roger Mortimer.He was a legitimate rival to the French throneThe Hundred Years War begins Major victories at: Sluys (1340), Crecy (1346), Calais (1347) and Poitiers (1356) mostly because of the king’s son Edward the Black Prince.
12EDWARD III CONT’D The Black Death began and ended. All but a few towns were eventually lost to France.He divided Parliament into two houses.English became the official language.John Wycliffe began his campaign.Chaucer began his masterpieces.In his last years, Edward experienced the loss of his loyal wife Philippa and his favorite son, the Black Prince.
13RICHARD II r. 1377 – 1399 (Last of the House of Anjou) Grandson of Edward III (Son of Edward, the Black Prince)Became king at 10 – Court controlled by his uncle; John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster.Believed in his divine right and absolute powerFaced rebellions (Peasants in 1381)Antagonized baronsWhile on a military campaign in Ireland, Richard’s cousin, Henry Bolingbroke seized the throne, and Richard was eventually forced to surrender to Henry.Richard was imprisoned in the tower of London and died within a few months (by Feb. 1400).