6Ancient TimesShang DynastyChina in the Xia rose around 2000 B.C., it was the first dynasty.no written recordsShang dynasty the first family of rulers to leave written records behind.Chinese script was logographicBronze had an important place in ritual.During the Zhou Dynasty, introduced coin money, which further improved trade.Iron was used to create weapons and tools.Zhou Dynasty
7Imperial Era (221 B.C. – 1911 B.C.) Qin Dynasty Han Dynasty Southern & Northern DynastiesSui DynastyTang DynastyFive Dynasties & Ten KingdomsSong DynastyYuan DynastyMing DynastyQing Dynasty
8Qin DynastyThe major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, the unification of the legal code, written language, measurement, and currency of China.built Great WallHan DynastyEmperor Wu consolidated and extended the Chinese empire.This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road.Civil Service Exam based on Confucian ideas
9Sui DynastyThe Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang.Tang DynastyConfucian ideology restoreExamination systemChang'an (modern Xi'an) the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time. The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.
10Song Dynasty Poor leadership Mongols – eventually invade Song China Not as strong politically or militarily as the TangStrong support of Confucian valuesNeo-Confucianism – emphasis on high morality, hostility to foreign influence, stress on tradition (stifled innovation), authority of menPoor leadershipMongols – eventually invade Song China
11Legacies – Tang and Song Grand Canal – under Yangdi (Sui) and other canals continueCommercial Expansion – Silk Road, maritime trade, increased urban centersAgricultural Production – continued to increaseFamily – male-dominated households continue and increase with Song (note foot-binding), Neo-Confucianism contributed to deterioration of status of womenTechnology – tools, weapons, paper money, compass, paper, printingArt – artwork, poetry (Li Bo) – celebrating the natural world
12Yuan DynastyKublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, wanting to adopt the customs of China, established the Yuan Dynasty.This was the first dynasty to rule the whole of China from Beijing as the capital.
13Ming DynastyEmperor Yong-le strenuously tried to extend China's influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute.A large navy was built, including four-massed ships displacing 1,500 tons. A standing army of 1 million troops was created. The Chinese armies conquered Vietnam for around 20 years.The Grand Canal was expanded, and proved to be a stimulus to domestic trade.During the Ming dynasty the last construction on the Great Wall was undertaken to protect China from foreign invasions.
14Qing DynastyEmperor Kangxi ordered the creation of the most complete dictionary of Chinese characters ever put together at the time.The Manchus set up the "Eight Banners" system in an attempt to avoid being assimilated into Chinese society.Banner membership was to be based on traditional Manchu skills such as archery, horsemanship, and frugality.
15Modern EraWith the proclamation of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, Taiwan was again politically separated from mainland China and was continued to be governed by the Republic of China.
18TaoismStarted by Lao-Tsu, who lived a little before Confucius, about 600 B.C.Tao means the ‘way’ or the ‘path’
19THE YIN & YANGIt shows how the YIN & the YANG are intertwined with each other.The YIN (The DARK side)-The side of WOMEN,THE MOON,COMPLETION & DEATH.The YANG (The LIGHT side)-The side of MEN, THE SUN, CREATION & BIRTH
20BuddhismGautama Buddha taught the four noble truths: that there is suffering, that suffering has a cause, that suffering has an end and that there is a path that leads to the end of suffering.
21Buddha Buddha was born around 565 B.C. in Lumbini in modern day Nepal They are the characteristics of the physical harmony and beauty of a Great Being, and are described in Story of the Life of Buddha Shakyamuni.
22ConfuciusBorn in a poor family in the year 551 B.C., and he was born in the state of Lu.Original name was K'ung Ch'iu.Made many wise phrases and theories about the law, life, and the government.Philosophy is a kind of a system of ideas and thoughts that talk about the human's behavior
23Women vs. Men: Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism Roles of women and menFoot bindingWang Anshi’s reforms of the 11th Century1085 – Wang diesReforms are reversed in Song DynastyWomen were homemakers and mothersConfined and limited in rightsMen could “roam” as the please and have relationshipsFootbinding became commonEventually, Wang Anshi introduced sweeping reforms in the 11th century to attempt to change how society was functioningIntroduced Legalist principles1085 – dies and reforms are reversed and neo-Confucianism brought backEventually, Song dynasty would be conquered by the Mongols
26Legalism1. Human nature is naturally selfish Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power One who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom.
29The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th century to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire during the rule of successive dynasties.Several walls, referred to as the Great Wall of China, were built since the 5th century BC.The most famous is the wall built between 220 BC and 200 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang; little of it remains; it was much farther north than the current wall, which was built during the Ming Dynasty.
31Temple of HeavenTemple of Heaven , the first of the five sacrificial temples in Beijing, is situated south of Beijing city. It was first built in 1420, along with the construction of the Forbidden City.The Temple of Heaven covers an area of 273 hectares. It is the best preserved and largest sacrificial building complex in the world.
32Temple of Heaven was the place where emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties (about seven hundreds years ago) came to perform worship to the God of Heaven and pray for good harvests.
34Chinese CalligrphyChinese calligraphy (Brush calligraphy) is an art unique to Asian cultures.Shu (calligraphy), Hua (painting), Qin (a string musical instrument), and Qi (a strategic boardgame) are the four basic skills and disciplines of the Chinese literati.
35Oracle bones People in China began writing about 1500 BC . The earliest writing that we know of from China was on animal bones, which are called "oracle bones" because they were used to tell the future.Chinese oracle bone (Shang Dynasty, about 1500 BC)
37The importance of orientation developed into the practice of Feng-shui which literally means "wind and water"Feng-shui concepts also dictated the kinds of material used in buildings. Combined with the location of the building,The proper building materials were thought to re-direct beneficial energy for the inhabitants.The most common building materials for houses in China are earth and woodDetail from a Ming period manual showing brick making
38A diagram of the supports for a three bay house A south-facing three bay house in Inner Mongolia The basic building block of Chinese architecture is the bay or "the space between," which is the space defined by roof supports.Chinese houses almost always consist of an odd number of bays; an even number of bays is considered unlucky. Therefore, three- or five- bay houses are common.
39Bird's eye view of courtyard house in Beijing The Three-bay house can be understood to be the basic unit of Chinese homes.Depending on the size and the wealth of the family.One common extension of the three-bay house was the creation of a courtyard dwelling.Bird's eye view of courtyard house in Beijing
40A notable feature of the courtyard house is that the complex is fully enclosed by buildings and walls.There are no windows on the outside walls, and usually the only opening to the outside is through the front gate.Ming dynasty woodblock print
41The courtyard was used in the design of more complex structures such as palaces and temples.
42How Did They Decorate their Houses ? Walls and eaves are often decorated, but particular attention is paid to doorways and windows because these are places where good or evil spirits were thought to enter.Elegant decorative schemes would also provide ventilation or shading.Many openings would be covered with latticework in an endless variety of patterns that "shape the wind" or alter the way air flows into a home.
44One way to summon good fortune is to invoke the character fu, seen on the wall to the right. Fu can be translated as "happiness," "good fortune," "blessings," or "luck.""Fu" on wall in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province
45PotteryThe earliest form of art we know from China was pottery - clay pitchers and bowls.Most of the best early pottery comes from a place called Ban’po and it is named after that place. This Ban'po pottery was handmade.Jar from Ban'po, 4800 BC
46Pottery bowl from Henan in Northern China,about 3500 BC Pottery jar from Gansu in North-West China, about 2500 BC