Presentation on theme: "Early China Section 1. Places to Locate Huang He: river in China, also called the Yellow River; provided rich soil for Huang He valley Chang Jiang: river."— Presentation transcript:
Places to Locate Huang He: river in China, also called the Yellow River; provided rich soil for Huang He valley Chang Jiang: river in China, also provided rich soil for farming Anyang: the first capital city of China; Shang kings ruled from here
Terms to Know Dynasty: a line or rulers who belong to the same family Aristocrat: noble or member of the ruling class Pictograph: characters that stand for objects; Ideograph: characters that join two or more pictographs to represent an idea
Terms to Know Bureaucracy: the officials and their areas or departments of government Mandate: a formal order Dao: the proper “Way” to keep the gods happy
Terms to Know Confucianism: Chinese philosophy that taught that people must do their duty to others to improve society Daoism: Chinese philosophy that says people should give up worldly desires and turn to nature and the Dao Legalism: Chinese philosophy that taught that people are evil and need harsh laws to make them do their duty
People to Meet Wu Wang: aristocrat who overthrew the Shang and started the Zhou dynasty
Section Overview This section describes the first civilizations in China and how the geography of the region, especially its rivers, mountains, and deserts, influenced China’s cultural development.
China’s Geography Huang He, or the Yellow River, flows for more than 2,900 miles across China. Flooding of the river brought destruction and good farming conditions to China. Chang Jiang, or the Yangtze River, is about 3,400 miles long and flows across central China.
Geography China has very little farm land because much of the country is either mountains or deserts. The Middle Kingdom was created after the Chinese people united to form one kingdom.
What effect did the mountains and deserts have on the Chinese people? The mountains and deserts separated the Chinese from most other peoples. China’s First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty Archaeologists believe the Huang He valley was the center of Chinese civilization The first rulers were probably part of the Xia dynasty. The Shang kings ruled from about 1750 B.C. to 1122 B.C. Anyang was China’s first capital. It was built during the Shang dynasty.
The Shang Dynasty People of the Shang dynasty were divided into groups. The king and his family were the most powerful group. Warlords and other royal officials were in the class below the kings. They were aristocrats, nobles whose wealth came from the land they owned.
The Shang Dynasty Traders and artisans were below the aristocrats. Most of the lower classes were farmers. Slaves captured during wars were the lowest class of people. People in the Shang dynasty believed in many spirits and gods and honored ancestors with offerings.
The Shang Dynasty Shang kings believed they received wisdom and power from the gods, spirits, and ancestors. Early Chinese writing used pictographs, or characters that stand for objects. Ideographs are two or more pictographs joined to represent an idea. Artisans created many works but are best known for their bronze objects.
How does the Chinese language differ from the alphabet system used by Americans? In the American alphabet, each letter represents a sound. The letters, or sounds, are put together to make words. In the Chinese language, each marking, or symbol, represents a whole word. China’s First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty Wu Wang and his followers rebelled against the Shang dynasty and created the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history.
The Zhou Dynasty Kings in the Zhou dynasty served as the head of the government. A bureaucracy— officials who are responsible for different areas of governments and served under the king. The Zhou kingdom was divided into smaller territories. Each territory was led by an aristocrat Zhou kings were thought to be the link between the gods and people.
The Zhou Dynasty The Mandate of Heaven was a heavenly law that gave Zhou kings the power to rule. The Mandate of Heaven also gave people rights. The Dao was the proper way kings were to rule their people. Irrigation and flood-control systems were developed during the Zhou dynasty.
The Zhou Dynasty Farm tools, such as the plow, were developed. Silk was an important trade item during the Zhou dynasty. The Period of Warring States occurred before the fall of the Zhou dynasty. During this time, the local rulers began fighting with each other.
What innovative weapons and equipment were used during the Period of Warring States? The Chinese used crossbows for fighting. They invented the saddle and stirrup during the Period of Warring States. China’s First Civilizations
What is a dynasty? A dynasty is a line of rulers who belong to the same family. China’s First Civilizations
What were oracle bones and how were they used? Oracle bones were bones with questions on them used to interpret answers from the gods.
Analyze How did the Mandate of Heaven allow for the overthrow of kings in ancient China? If a king failed in his duty and the kingdom experienced a disaster, the king could be replaced. China’s First Civilizations
Evaluate What were some important technological changes during the Zhou dynasty, and how did they lead to a larger population? Development of irrigation and flood- control systems, along with the iron plow, led to increased crop production and a rising population. China’s First Civilizations
Explain How did ancient Chinese kings maintain control of their dynasties? Kings maintained large armies to conquer land and protect borders but also appointed warlords to govern the kingdom’s territories. China’s First Civilizations