Classical China What should we know about Classical China? Ruled by the Qin & Han Dynasties
What should we already know about China? Lack of fertile land Loess Mandate of Heaven Dynastic Cycle Oracle Bones Fireworks / explosives Think: Mulan Feudalism Chinese Dynasties: –Shang –Zhou –Qin –Han –Tang –Song –Yuan –Ming
Qin Dynasty Qin family ruled China from 221-206 BC Emperor Shi Huang-di was the first emperor of China. Used Legalism to Rule: –Philosophy used by Shi Huang-di to rule China –Strict laws and harsh punishments –Executed opposition and burned books to prevent new ideas Shi Huang-di (259-210 BC) was a cruel ruler who readily killed or banished those who opposed him or his ideas.
Qin Dynasty Shi Huang-di standardized Chinese writing, law, currency, weights and measures. He expanded the Chinese empire, built a system of roads and massive fortifications and palaces. Shi Huangdi buried himself with a life size, clay army. This army was dubbed the Terra Cotta Soldiers. Great Wall: The emperor connected and extended the old walls along the north of China to prevent nomadic invasions.
Han Dynasty Important Political Facts: Han family ruled 202 BC until A.D. 220 Adopted Confucian principles, rather than Legalism, to rule China. Civil Service System: selected government officials based on merit; schools were set up to train government officials; The Chinese population increased to over 60 million under the reign of Han rulers. This huge population required a strong bureaucracy to meet the needs of the people. Many farmers suffered because of the lack of available farmland. Founded by a peasant, Liu Bang Emperor Han Wudi expanded the territories ruled by China.
Han Dynasty– Golden Age Contributions: –Textile manufacturing –Water mills = grain –Iron casting –Paper –Rudders improved shipping –Confucian schools –Architecture –Silk Road = Cultural Diffusion –Silk New technology added to the economic prosperity of the Han era. Contributions made during this time improved trade, farming, and manufacturing.
Decline of the Han Dynasty Weak rulers Centralized Government began to decline Nobles controlled most of land, limiting the opportunities for small farmers. Nomadic invasions Peasant Uprisings Corruption Civil Wars